Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas <p>Journal of Pure &amp; Applied Sciences (JOPAS) is a part of Sebha university journals and published by Sebha University. JOPAS is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. JOPAS is committed to publish the latest research updates from scientists, researchers and students worldwide through one of the world’s best Open Journal Platforms. It publishes review article, regular article and short communication in all fields of pure and applied sciences. The different fields include but not limited to biological, natural and pure sciences. All articles will be peer reviewed with at least two blinded reviewers. Accepted manuscripts are published online as soon as the author approved the final proof. There are two volumes per year with unlimited numbers of articles. Accepted articles will be added to the current volume without any delay. Publishing with JOPAS is absolutely free in other words there will not be any handling, processing charges. </p> Sebha University en-US Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2708-8251 <p>In a brief statement, the rights relate to the publication and distribution of research published in the journal of the University of Sebha where authors who have published their articles in the journal of the university of Sebha should how they can use or distribute their articles. They reserve all their rights to the published works, such as (but not limited to) the following rights:<br>- Copyright and other property rights related to the article, such as patent rights.<br>- Research published in the journal of the University of Sebha and used in its future works, including lectures and books, the right to reproduce articles for their own purposes, and the right to self-archive their articles.<br>- The right to enter a separate article, or for a non-exclusive distribution of their article with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in the journal of Sebha University.<br>Privacy Statement The names and e-mail addresses entered on the Sabha University Journal site will be used for the aforementioned purposes only and for which they were used.</p> Evaluation of On-Street Car Parking on El-Wasea Street in Sebha – Libya http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2123 <p>On-Street parking characterizes most urban streets, especially in the urban centers where it is considered an attractive facility for drivers. However, inappropriate on-street parking could adversely affect the capacity and the driving speeds of the adjacent road and can cause severe delays, especially on busy roads. In addition, it can pose danger to the safety of road users if not managed properly. This paper tries to study and analyze the car parking on El-Wasea Street in Sebha city, and its impact on traffic behavior. The study reveals that parking on the street does not follow any kind of order, parking spaces are not appropriately provided for parking, and in some places along the street parking took parts of traffic lanes endangering traffic safety, especially during peak hours. The paper included some recommendations on how to rearrange the On-street parking on El-Wasea Street, which is expected to solve parking of cars, or at least mitigate, the adverse impacts of parking on the traffic movement on the street.&nbsp;</p> Ahmed M. Alhodairi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 40 44 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2123 Investigation of Wadi Al-Shatti Iron Oxide Effects on the Gamma Ray Attenuation and Compression Strength of Hardened Concrete http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2213 <p>A local ore material from Wadi Al-Shatti (south west of Libya)&nbsp; using different concentrations were investigated as a shielding material. The linear attenuation coefficients, mass attenuation coefficients and calculated density showed that the ore material used in this study may be preferred as shielding material against gamma radiation. It is clear from the results that as the sample thickness increases, the detector intensity decreases and when percentage of Wadi Al-Shatti Iron Oxide (WSIO) increases, the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), on the other hand, the mass attenuation coefficients (MAC) decreased. Generally, the attenuation of WSIO increases as increasing the&nbsp; linear attenuation coefficient.This research is also concerned with studying the&nbsp; effect of replacing a mix sand of concrete with different weight of WSIO namely. It was expectedthat addition of iron oxide material with higher density higher hardness than Portland cement will increase the compressive strength. In general, the addition of low contents of WSIO to the concrete may improve the compressive strength, but still depends on the concentration of iron oxide as well as the thickness of the concrete.</p> Mohammed A. Al Madani Yousef A. Abdullah Elfitouri K. Ahmied Noura S. Hawashi Mahmoud J. Altayeb Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 213 218 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2213 Mix Procedure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Containing Nano-Silica; Advantages And Challenges To Achieve Required Characteristics http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2128 <p>The paper describes the mix method and the results of the influence of nanoparticles of nano silica (NS) (d ≈ 65 nm) on the Ultra-High performance Concrete (UHPC) matrix properties. Five different contents of NS particles were applied: 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 wt.% by weight of cement. The studies regarding different physical and mechanical parameters of cementitious composite matrix specimens such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and flexural strength. Structural properties have been carried out and the results of these studies are presented and discussed. It was shown that the nanoparticles in the amounts of 1-2 wt.% can influence the cement hydration process and thereby enhance the compressive strength of cementitious composite. The higher enhancement was obtained during the first three days of hardening due to so called filling effect. In the following stage of hydration, the strengthening effect diminished. This phenomenon was convergent with the XRD analysis, which proved that the nanoparticles react with the cement paste components.</p> Muftah Mohamed Sreh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 69 74 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2128 Stability Study Of Sandstone Slope Parallel To The Abu Rashada Mountain Road In Gharyan Area - NW Libya http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2134 <p>The evaluation and analysis of the slopes stability that are in danger of collapse is one of the things that require studies based on scientific grounds to determine the type of collapse and how it occurs and the factors affecting it, The rock masses that make up the slopes often contain cracks or joints&nbsp; or rock cutouts, Thus different types of collapses are formed, plane and Wedge Failure or rotational Failure, The Importance of studying rock falls increases if their occurrence leads to human or material damages, plane Failure is one of those collapses that occur on slopes parallel to mountain roads, In this study, weak spots were observed on a sandstone slope parallel to the Abu Rashada mountain road in Gharyan Area, It also observed the occurrence of rock fall of the slope, some of which reached the road, In the initial study of the slope, it was found that there is a collapsing mass separated from the mass of the original slope. The main objective was to evaluate and study the stability of the parallel slope of the road and analyze its stability using the field and laboratory study and the use of the (RocPlane) program, The most important results were that there was a change in the water content, cohesion and friction angle values with each change in water quantities under the influence of vertical stress and shear stress applied from the direct shear device, It was found that with the increase in the amount of water from 5 mm to 25 mm 50 mm, The cohesion and the angle of friction decreased, and a decrease in the factor of safety occurred. One of the recommendations is to remove the separated part of the block that is collapsing.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>الحجــر الرملي</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Aboalgasem Alakhdar Amhmed Abudiena Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 104 110 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2134 A Comparative Study of Automated Testing Tools for Spreadsheets http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2140 <p>Organizations and industries use spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel, for various tasks, such as accounting, financial calculations, and reporting. However, the number of spreadsheets that contain errors is very high. One primary reason is that different end-users develop spreadsheets without programming or software development training. Thus, researchers have proposed a variety of automated tools and techniques to support the end-users in finding and fixing errors in spreadsheets. The main objective of this paper is to study different automated tools in spreadsheet testing and classify them according to two criteria: how they work and the ability to find spreadsheet faults. For this purpose, we discuss various spreadsheet testing automated tools, techniques, and strategies. In addition, we highlight their performance and where they can be used so that they can be beneficial to both end-users and researchers. We then set out key directions for potential future works.</p> Ali Aburas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 140 144 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2140 The current and expected environmental effects of excessive groundwater withdrawal in Eastern Section of Wadi Al-Shati (Ashkeda-Bergen) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2146 <p>Water is the origin of life for all creatures; It helps people secure their urban and agricultural needs to survive. Agriculture is considered as one of the dominant activities in Libya which consumes a lot of water. In Wadi Al-Shati area, 65%-97% of groundwater is consumed in agriculture, because of the absence of other water sources in the area, such as water bodies, rainwater or treated water. This groundwater is pulled out by wells, whether they are artesian or ordinary wells - often drilled at random and without study. This research studied the current and expected future environmental effects of the excessive consumption of groundwater in the eastern section of Wadi Al-Shati&nbsp; and its impact on living organisms and their survival. After reviewing previous studies, the data of the groundwater level monitoring wells in the region was studied and analyzed, and the negative environmental changes occurred in the area were observed, such as the drought of palm oases, the decline of agricultural lands, the salinization of the soil, the depletion of many natural water springs, the sand creeping, the decrease in the numbers and the disappearance of many types of birds and wild animals which was teeming with the area. Accordingly, the study concluded that the areas&nbsp; witnessing intensive agricultural activity are subject to greater rates of decline in their groundwater levels, such as the Ashkedah Agricultural Project with a falling rate of (0.662 m/year), Um Al-Jadawill Project (0.981 m/year) and the Aril Agricultural Project (0.690 m/year)more than other areas. The statistical analysis of the data of the groundwater level monitoring wells in the region showed that the groundwater level is declining in the future, Therefore; the study recommended the necessity of stopping random drilling of wells, maintenance of&nbsp; artesian well heads, or permanently closing them, following regulated agricultural irrigation methods and continuing to observe monitoring wells.</p> A. Ahmad Naji M. Abdulrahman Inweer Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 182 190 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2146 Application of iterative decoding systems (UTTCM) to 4G-LTE mobile radio communication network http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2113 <p>The mobile communications market has grown at an unprecedented rate and cellular phones have been adopted much faster than any other equipment. At the same time, current systems meet many needs, depending on whether mobility, speed, cost and quality are promoted and ensured ... To meet the ever-increasing demands of consumers. These large capacity demands can only be met by high efficiency and very good optimization of mobile network infrastructures, while taking into account the constraints that are power, bandwidth and limited complexity. The concern to transmit at high rates while being confined to a defined bandwidth has led some researchers to consider the application of iterative channel codes to high spectral efficiency modulations. In order to recover the transmitted data correctly and efficiently. In our paper, we are mainly interested in simulation analysis to improve the performance of 4G-LTE mobile radio transmission, through the use of iterative coding technique, which is efficient and less complex, named UTTCM through three models of channels (EPA, EVA, ETU).&nbsp;</p> Elarbi Abderraouf Mohamed Reda Lahcene Mohammed Sofiane Bendelhoum Abderrazak Ali Tadjeddine Youcef Djeldjeli Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 6 10 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2113 Insects decomposing crops of criminal importance in the Jebel El Wahsh Forest, Constantine, Algeria http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2169 <p>Forensic entomology is the study of insects and their environment in order to give information that is useful for judicial investigations. Our current study was conducted in the Constantine region in eastern Algeria. This study was carried out in cooperation with the National Institute of Criminology of the National Gendarmerie, where we identified the insects that participate in the decomposition of corpses (animal cadaver), during the experiment period (from April 30 to May 23, 2019). 1300 individuals were collected and the taxonomic study showed that there are 26 species of arthropods. It is divided into five orders of insects,(Insecta), in addition to other arthropods such as spiders. Diptera is presented by a family and seven species. Beetles contain four families with six species and Hymenoptera three families with four species. We further examined the trend of species grouping over time by stage of cadaver decomposition. In order to use forensic entomology in investigations, such studies must be generalized to all regions of the country.</p> Naima Benkenana Moussa Toumi Derrouiche Chahinez Attef Benharkou Adel Hazmoun Ammar Teboul Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 237 239 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2169 Comparison of Two Face Recognition Machine Learning Models http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2120 <p>Machine learning (ML) is one of the fastest-developing topics today, straddling the boundary between statistics and computer science, as well as data science. It is a type of artificial intelligence that allows software applications to become more accurate at predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed. And It addresses the difficulty of the way to assemble gadgets that enhance themselves via experience, and make conclusions with minimum human assistance. For this purpose, there arises a need to use various statistical methods of face recognition’ models, such as (DeepFace) and (OpenFace). DeepFace is the most lightweight face recognition and facial attribute analysis library for Python, and is currently on the verge of human-level precision. OpenFace on the other hand is an open source deep learning facial recognition model based on Google's Facenet model. In this paper, we will discuss the face recognition comparison between two models DeepFace and OpenFace on the calibrators of (Accuracy, Error Rate and Verification Time). DeepFace showed a higher accuracy rate by (3%) than that of OpenFace, and a lower error rate by (3%). Whereas OpenFace delivered with a minimum time shorter than that of DeepFace by (0.061323) second.</p> Safa Salem Dakhila Nuredin Ali Salem Ahmed Hala Shaari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 30 34 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2120 Detection of Multi-drugs Resistant Gram-negative bacilli Bacteria Producing Metallo Beta Lactamases in Intensive care unit of Sebha Medical Center, Sebha, Libya. http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2205 <p>Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in health care settings has increased globally. Hospital infections caused by Multi drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria are serious problem, which results in very limited treatment options, consequently, leading to an increase in the mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. This study was conducted to detect the spread of multi drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria that producing Metallo β-Lactamase enzymes in the intensive care unit of Sebha Medical Center. Thirty six isolates of multi drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from intensive care unit rooms. The most frequent isolates in the swabs taken from patients and medical staff in intensive care rooms included Rahnella aquatilis (31.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (31.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5%), Burkholderia cepacia (12.5%), Aeromonas hydrophila (6.3%) and Ochrobactrum anthropi (6.3%). Bacterial isolates from the ICU environment and hands of&nbsp; medical staff in the intensive care unit were Providenecia alcalifaciens&nbsp; (35%), Rahnella aquatilis&nbsp; (30%), Pantoea Spp (15%), Proteus mirabilis (10%),Enterobacter cloacae&nbsp; (5%), and Aeromonas salmonicida (5%). The most effective antibiotics against the Multi drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the intensive care unit rooms are Gentamicin, Amikacin and Tobromycin proposing these antibiotics as potential treatment options for infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria. The results also showed that the rate of MβL enzymes secretion by bacteria isolated from the ICU was (33%), as Pantoea Spp isolates were the most producers of MβL enzymes.</p> Aisha Almabrook Alrbee Abdelkader A.Elzen Allaaeddin A.El Salabi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 261 269 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2205 An Exploratory Data Analysis of Breast Cancer Features in South of Libya http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2126 <p>Exploratory data analysis is a data visualization approach used to extract knowledge from raw data. This approach can be applied to medical data to improve healthcare providers services.&nbsp; In recent years, breast cancer has become more common in women and requires effective procedures to detect it in the early stage. In this context, breast cancer patients' data were collected from the Sebha oncology center through their routine blood tests. The exploratory data analysis technique is used in this study to better analyze the patients' markers. The analysis aims to discover prominent bio and tumor markers that can assist in determining whether a tumor is benign or malignant. Several statistical and visualizations methods are used. The results show that the most effective markers that may be used as cancer predictors are: Cancer Antigen-15.3, Carcinoma Embryonic Antigen, White Blood Cells, Blood platelets, and Albumin. These findings are consistent with the findings of Sebha oncology center specialists. which may eventually aid in their cancer diagnosis.</p> Asma Agaal Mansour Essgaer Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 57 64 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2126 Simulation Cache Coherence Protocols in Multicore Processors http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2239 <p>The cache coherence problem is the challenge of keeping multiple cache synchronized when one of the processors update its local copy of data which is shared among multiple cache. This paper discusses several different varieties of cache coherence protocols including with their pros and cons, and using simulation technique it will address this problem and compare between two protocols that use to solve it: Directory-based protocol and Snooping protocol. Simulation results have shown that snooping based systems are appropriate for high bandwidth systems while directory-based cache coherence protocols are suitable for lower bandwidth systems.</p> Anis Elgarduh Abdalhamed Alkawash Abdelmhsan Elbandac Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 285 289 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2239 The Neuroprotective Role of Purslane in a chronic model of Depression Induced By reserpine in mice: Prevention of Behavioral, Mitochondrial and Neuro Dysfunction. http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2132 <p><em>Portulaca oleracea</em> is a universal species with a broad range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. The present study aimed to estimate the neuroprotective effect of purslane ethanolic extract (PEE) and aqueous extract (PAE) on depression model induced by reserpine. Methods: Seventy five male mice were divided into 5 groups (15 mice of each). 1st group control (C), 2nd group treated with reserpine 0.1 mg/kg (Res) as a single dose at the day 15th of the beginning of experiment, 3rd group treated with Escitalopram 1mg/kg for 15 days plus 0.1 mg/kg Res at a latest day of&nbsp; the treatment. 4th group treated with PEE 2 mg/kg for 15 days plus 0.1 mg/kg Res at a latest day of the treatment. 5th group treated with PAE 5 g/kg for 15 days plus 0.1 mg/kg Res at a latest day of the treatment. Forced swimming test (FST) was performed 1 hour later after Res treatment. Results: Revealed data showed that the Res treated group induced significant (P&gt;0.05) decrease in FST, decrease of brain monoamines [norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT)], brain cell energy [adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] increase metabolic energy [adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)]. On the other hand other treatment groups showed significant amelioration in comparing with Res group and almost recovery in comparing with control group. Conclusion: Obtained data concluded that PEE more potent than PAE, ameliorate depression induced by reserpine and act as a neuroprotective, neuromodulator and stimulate monoamines secretion.&nbsp;</p> Barga Abou-khzam Souad Abou-khzam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 85 91 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2132 Olive genetic resources in Tunisia : Diversity and valorization http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2138 <p>The olive plantation in Tunisia is very ancient, which resulted in a great genetic diversity that was preserved in the olive collection in the Tunisian city of Sfax (rainy regime and arid climate). The collection contains 145 local varieties and 53 foreign varieties from 11 countries at present. The olive productivity in the period 2007-2019 proves a diversity in the rates from 0.46 to 20.06 kg/tree and indicates the presence of high-yielding local varieties with variable alternate bearing. In terms of the oil acidic composition, the analyzes showed the presence of 14 varieties with high oleic acid content (&gt;70%) and medium contents for palmitic and linoleic acids, making them of high quality and conformed to commercial and health specifications and distinct from the reference variety in Tunisia 'Chemlali Sfax'. Choosing distinct olive varieties from the Bougrara collection will increase olive production in Tunisia and improve the oil quality for greater export opportunities.</p> Fathi Ben Amar Mohamed Ayadi Abdelmajid Yengui Hassan Belguith Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 128 131 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2138 The varying environmental characteristics of energy sources and their impact on sustainable development http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2143 <p>Energy is the source of the driving forces for development programs, which led to the struggle to obtain the largest amount of it, whether in peace or war, and its over-exploitation, which casts a shadow on the environment with negative impacts, due to the addiction of the global economy to energy sources, especially fossil ones, which are produced and consumed in ways Leading to various environmental, economic, and social aspects, which prompted countries and institutions to search for better, clean, renewable, and environmentally friendly energy sources to reduce environmental pollution on the one hand, and reduce pressure on the use of fossil energy sources on the other hand. Renewable energy has become an alternative to traditional energy sources, with its distinctive characteristics, being sustainable energy and does not contribute to any significant environmental damage, and an urgent necessity to achieve the dimensions of sustainable development. From this point of view, the problem of the study is determined in the main question (what is the impact of the disparity in the environmental characteristics of energy sources in achieving sustainable development?), where the researcher relied on the descriptive approach by reviewing previous studies that dealt with the subject of this study, and the results of the study showed that for each source of energy Environmental characteristics that determine its value, role, and effectiveness in the formation of the energy supply mix, in order to achieve sustainable development by reaching the best energy mixture characterized by environmental characteristics that are less harmful to it, and that the preference of any of these sources over the other is determined by the extent of its ability to contribute to Supplying energy, without prejudice to the environmental elements, and to be supportive of achieving the principles of sustainable development. The study concluded with recommendations that highlighted the importance of forming the energy supply mix by improving the efficiency of fossil energy sources, and raising the contribution of clean renewable energy sources in this mixture, in a manner that ensures its achievement of the principles and objectives of sustainable development.</p> Ahmed Al-Mashri Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 160 171 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2143 The Effect of Spent Coffee Residues on the Growth and Productivity of Watercress and Swiss Chard Plants http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2167 <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilization with spent coffee residues on soil properties, growth and productivity of watercress and Swiss chard. Cultivation was done in pots and different amounts of coffee residues were added to the soil (0%, 2.25%, 4.5%, 6.5%). Conductivity, pH, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and exchange capacity in the soil were measured, in addition to measuring plant height, number of leaves, chlorophyll content of leaves and their content. of sodium and potassium. The pH results showed a gradient in the pH rise with the increase in the concentration of coffee in the watercress soil, but the effect was not uniform in the Swiss chard soil, in addition to that the statistical analysis did not show a significant effect for neither the plant factor nor the concentration factor, where the values ranged between 6.8 to 7.6. Regarding conductivity in the soil, no significant differences were found between the average of the two soils of Swiss chard and watercress. Regarding the concentration of sodium in the soil in general, it was higher in watercress soil compared to Swiss chard, and this may be due to the fact that the sodium concentration in Swiss chard is more than in watercress, and the highest concentration was 2172.22 ppm in watercress soil. In general, the addition of coffee has increased the soil's potassium content with significant differences between the control and the rest of the concentrations, whether for total, exchangeable or dissolved potassium. As for the plant, the chard content of sodium and potassium was higher than that of watercress. As for chlorophyll, it did not show any significant difference with the concentrations. It was found that there was an inverse relationship to plant height with an increase in concentrations and number of leaves in Swiss chard, while there was no significant effect for watercress.</p> Hanin Massoud Abubaker Ibraheem Mohamed Alshareef Fadel Binyahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 296 303 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2167 Usability testing of two Libyan banks' websites using the Dareboost tool (Bank of Commerce & Development, Wahda Bank) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2117 <p>Internet banking is constantly expanding in terms of content and functionality, and it has a significant impact on society. One goal of the Digital Agenda for Libya is to make Internet banking services available to all, reducing cash handling. Internet banking is a critical service that financial institutions provide to their customers in order to facilitate easier and faster access to financial services and transactions. Banks currently spend vast sums of money on the development and maintenance of websites and backend systems that provide clients with Internet banking services. Given the low accessibility of bank websites, evaluation and monitoring of the efficiency of those banking sites that offer the service are needed. The effect of moderating factors on online banking usability assessment in Libya is discussed here. As the Internet grows in popularity, banks are adopting technologies to create their own Web sites. The design of the website is an important factor in determining whether or not visitors will return to the site. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the usability of the Internet banking Web sites of two main banks in Libya. The evaluation procedure is used in the World Wide Web environment to measure real data and obtain response time. To get results on the performance of a Web site, some data from the calculation of page size, composition, structure, and download time has been measured. In this study, a website performance evaluation tool, Dareboost, was used to evaluate the Bank of Commerce &amp; Development website and Wahda Bank website. Dareboost has a- modern graphical user interface that is very easy and intuitive to use and gives a recommendations on how to improve the performance as the result. Based on the observation results, the Bank of Commerce &amp; Development website received the highest score in most metrics. Therefore, the Bank of Commerce &amp; Development website is the best in terms of usability.</p> Yousuf A. Maneetah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 19 23 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2117 Roughness in Anti Semigroup http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2194 <p>In this paper, we present the concepts of the upper and lower approximations of Anti-rough subgroups, Anti-rough subsemigroups, and homeomorphisms of Anti-Rough anti-semigroups in approximation spaces. Specify the concepts of rough in Finite anti-groups of types (4) are studies. Moreover, some properties of approximations and these algebraic structures are introduced. In addition, we give the definition of homomorphism anti-group.</p> Faraj. A. Abdunabi Ahmed shletiet Najah. A. Bosaif Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 251 253 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2194 Effects of Aging and Moisture Damage on Asphaltic Mixture http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2124 <p>Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to the loss of strength and durability due to the presence of water. Road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids degree of saturation media of attack and the conditioning period. Moisture damage is one of the major issues in asphalt distress. It is due to the adhesive and cohesive failure of the asphalt mixture and it will shorten pavement life. Moisture-sensitive mixtures need to be identified during the course of the mixture design process which fulfil the specified minimum standard. The laboratory testing procedures currently available for compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) to test the moisture sensitivity were primarily developed to determine the degree of resistance to moisture damage by a particular combination of asphalt and aggregate. These moisture sensitivity tests evaluate the effect of moisture damage in the laboratory by measuring the relative change of a single parameter before and after conditioning (i.e. Tensile Strength Ratio Resilient Modulus Ratio). &nbsp;</p> Bashir M. Aburawi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 45 49 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2124 Assessment of Groundwater Wells Pollution by Some Heavy Metals in El-Beida City-Libya http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2214 <p>One of the most important concerns is the presence of heavy metals in water. Heavy metal pollution in groundwater is a major concern, because of their toxicity and hazard to human life and the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the quantity of five heavy metals present in groundwater wells in different sites of El-Beida city. Groundwater wells samples were collected in January 2022 from 10 randomly selected wells throughout the region and analyzed in order to determine the content of a number of heavy metals namely: Lead, Copper, Iron, Manganese, and Nickel using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), and their levels were compared to the maximum contamination limits specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Libyan National Centre for Standardization and Metrology (LNCSM). The results in the current study indicate there is variation among wells. The Lead (Pb) concentrations ranged between (0.33-0.50 mg/l), whereas the Copper (Cu) value ranged (0.07-0.12 mg/l), the Iron (Fe) value ranged (1.15-1.35 mg/l), the Manganese (Mn) value ranged (0.17-0.75 mg/l), and the Nickel (Ni) value ranged (0.19-0.52 mg/l). Most of the heavy metal analyzed in this study were exceed permissible limits for international standards of drinking water by WHO or LNCSM&nbsp; while Copper (Cu) did not exceed permissible limits for international standards of drinking water.</p> Galal M. Elmanfe Tariq A. Tyeb Kareima A.Abdelghani Adel A. Abdulathim Jibreel A. Asbeeh Huda S. Muftah Ameerah F. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 270 275 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2214 A Proposed Unified Standard IoT-Based Architecture Based on 7-Layers Framework (Case Applied: Car Accident System) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2129 <p>Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the famous applications of internet commuting and of cloud computing, and it is a widely used applications by organizations or by individuals, i.e., smart city, smart home, etc. There are many different IoT platforms that have been developed and used by IoT cloud providers to provide services to their subscribers. These different platforms lead to difficulty understand of each platform by developers. So, the need of IoT standard system is highly required to mitigate the diversity of building IoT-based system using different software layers. In this paper, a unified IoT-based architecture has been proposed based on 7-layers framework to be as a de facto standard to the most of IoT-based applications. Moreover, the proposed architecture has been applied using the car accident system which is a known application of IoT based application using CubCarbon Wireless Senser Networks (WSN) simulator. The proposed architecture shows the consistency between its 7-layers and promising to be as a considered unified IoT architecture.</p> Saleh Hussien Al-awami Mousa Faraj Al-najar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 75 80 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2129 The Basic Elements Of E-management And Its Relationship To The Strategic Performance Of The Alasmarya Islamic University (A field study on the public administration at the Asmarya Islamic University) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2135 <p>The study aimed to identify the process of linking the basic elements of electronic management The study aimed to identify the process of linking the basic elements of electronic management and the strategic performance of the public administration at the Asmarya Islamic University, and the most important results of the study were: The existence of a strong and significant direct relationship between the availability of the basic elements of electronic management at the Asmarya Islamic University and the strategic performance of the university, where the correlation coefficient was (0.78). The researchers attributed the interpretation of this link to the fact that (60%) of the changes in the strategic performance of the Asmarya Islamic University are explained by the change in the availability of the basic elements of electronic management in it, and that only (40%) of the change is explained by factors other than the availability of the basic elements of electronic management.</p> Mohamed Almbqa Mokhtar Bensaad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 111 120 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2135 Cement logs evaluation Ghadames Basin, (Al Wafa Gas field), case study, Libya http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2141 <p>The acoustic logging method is the most commonly used to qualify a cement job. It can be run several hours or several days after the cement placement and evaluates the quality of the bond (acoustic coupling) between the casing, the cement and the formation. It measures the attenuation of the sound signal as it propagates through the casing, cement and formation and returns to the sensor. This technique and will help spot free pipe, partially bonded or fully bonded pipe. The aim of this paper is analyses and evaluates cement logs data in two wells within Al Wafa Gas field, the cement logs analysis results of two wells shown variables cement condition behind the casing. The well A24-NC169A, analysis showing a good cement condition for both casing and formation as the signature of cement logs showing very low amplitude reading due to high attenuation of waves in cement bound log because the cement was good behind casing. The well A56-NC169A, showing variable results, as good cement condition behind the casing bond to casing, formation, micro- annual and channeling condition. The gamma- ray ranging from 40 to 150, as sand to shaly sand sediments, transit-time was normal, cement bound log recorded variables from low, medium to high amplitude (18 to 56) due to different wave attenuated depending on cement condition (good to partially cement). Variable density log showing variable results (Formation arrive, casing arrive, no casing arrive and no formation arrive, all depending on cement behind the casing. In general, the results revealed good cement condition.</p> Ziyad. Ben Abdulhafid Ibrahim Aldukali Amar Saad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 145 150 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2141 Assessment of the awareness of the Libyan citizens in choosing plastic products that are in contact with food http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2151 <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledgeand awareness of the Libyan citizens about the safe use of plastic products, which are used in food packaging applications. The concept of reuse and recycling as well as the main reasons behind the risks caused by plastic products are also addressed.The survey was carried out in Tripoli city, where 200questionnaires were collected from different citizens. Generally speaking, results showed that there is a weak awareness among theLibyan citizens regarding food packaging materials. About 64% of the Libyan citizens are not interested in knowing the signs and warnings printed on plastic products used in food packaging.Similarly, most citizens are afraid of using plastic products for heating or keeping food in freezers, despite the availability of lots of plastic products that are used for these purposes. The survey also indicated that the most reused products are plastic bottles and containers, while plastic bags are the least. A great percentage of the Libyan citizens (~ 56%) throw plastic products in the garbage after usage without even considering recycling them.Finally, the survey showed that the understanding and opinions of the Libyan citizens about the risks of using plastic products in food packaging were varied and did not reflect the real reasons behind those risks.</p> Hana Jamhour Ramadan Elghaziwi Anour Shebani Hussein Etmimi Fathia Alahmer Fatma Elhbeshi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 191 198 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2151 Some Characteristics Of Ng-Groups http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2115 <p>The This paper aims to consider and study some new properties in NG groups that consist of non-bijective transformations that are not a subset of symmetric groups. The regularity of these groups presents such as new results. Moreover, a new definition of anti-inverse NG groups is given. Some new results and properties are studied.</p> Faraj.A.Abdunabi Ahmed shletiet Muatazz.A.Bashir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 11 12 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2115 Inter-Ethnic Interactions in Urban Public Space: The Malaysian Experience http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2170 <p>Social interaction entails communal experiences between people during their daily activities. People from different ethnic backgrounds in Malaysia namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians spend their leisure time in an urban square, which offers opportunities for social interaction among three ethnic groups. However, how are public spaces utilised for leisure by people from different multi-ethnic backgrounds? Does the variety of attributes in public spaces attract people from a different background? The current aim of this research sets to establish properties and attributes of urban square characteristics such as the quality of daily activities that contribute to inter-ethnic social interactions among users in urban civic spaces. The study focused on constructing indices on how daily activity attributes, and how to investigate the diversity amongst the three ethnic groups on how the urban public space is perceived. A total of 140 questionnaires were administered to measure how the public square users perceived public space use in Batu Pahat town, Malaysia Peninsular. The analysis was facilitated through analytic tool of the Rasch Model. The study revealed that the Malays use urban squares more than Indians and Chinese. Consequently, this affects the level of the Malays social interaction among others. While on the other hand, for square activities reflecting Chinese and Indian culture makes the urban square less attractive to the Chinese and Indians. It suggests that the environmental attribute quality of the square should be improved to attract social interaction amongst the three ethnic groups.</p> Hesham Omran Elfartas Haithem Ahmed Albeera Jibril Danazimi Jibril Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 240 245 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2170 Some Results of Unique Common Fixed Point Generalized In Extended b_2-metric spaces http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2122 <p>Recently, extended -metric space has been used as a generalization of both -metric and extended metric spaces. The object of this study is to evidence some findings of fixed point and common fixed point for mappings in the frame of extended -metric space, in addition, to generalizing some examples. The outcomes of this study are to generalize and extend some existing findings in previous literature.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sameehah R. Alkaleei Hakm a T.E.Muostfa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 35 39 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2122 Histopathological Changes in Rat Testes Induced by Potassium Bromate and Potential Ameliorative Effects of Ruta chalepensis Oil Extract http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2212 <p>Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is used as a food additive mainly in the bread-making process. Ruta chalepensis (R. chalepensis) is an excellent and valuable bioactive plant that produces a range of complex flavonoids. The present study was aimed to investigate the possible protective and therapeutic effect of R. chalepensis against KBrO3 toxic effects on rat testis using histopathology investigation. Fifty adult male albino rats were used in the present study. The rats were divided into five groups each containing 10 rats. First group was kept as control, second group received oil extract of R. chalepensis, third group was treated with KBrO3, forth group (Protective group) and fifth group (Therapeutic group). All groups of animals were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of the present study showed that the administration of R. chalepensis caused disarrangement of spermatogonia throughout the lumen of seminiferous tubule. Additionally, abnormal widening of interstitial spaces with degeneration of interstitial cells. There was necrosis to the spermatocytes with inhibition of the spermatogenic process. KBrO3 group showed necrosis of seminiferous tubule, loss in some spermatogenic cells. There were fibrous stroma between the seminiferous tubules. Also revealed vacuolation, edematous, hyalinization and loss of interstitial connective tissue cell with haemorrhage between seminiferous tubules. Protective group showed seminiferous tubule atrophy, disrupted germ cell layers and disappearance of Leydig cells. The therapeutic group, showed interstitial hemorrhage, with necrosis in spermatogonia and vacuolation. It may be concluded that KBrO3 is toxic to testis and R. chalepensis at the tested dose is not beneficial as protective and curative agent.</p> Ibrahim S. Eldurssi Gasem M. A. Abdalla Ebtesam M. M. Gheth Mabroka A. S. Hamad Abdullah A. H. Algassi Abdulsalam M. A. Bolhaj Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 206 212 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2212 The stability of eigenvalues and eigenvectors and their impact on differential systems http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2127 <p>In this article, we apply the stability of eigenvalues and eigenvectors and their impact on differential systems. To achieve this goal, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are studied and their differential systems, nature in terms of being different real values, compound eigenvalues, or equal eigenvalues.And to identify how to solve linear differential systems with fixed coefficients with the initial condition a complete solution, which depends on the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors, finding the general solution and the geometry of teigenvectors graphically and the effect of theigenvalues for the three eigenvalues cases, by drawing the&nbsp; paths and the phase plane and clarifying the state of equilibrium contract and stability</p> Mabrouka A. Ghaith Awatef H. M. Abu-Qoffah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 65 68 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2127 Identifying the Difficulties of Learning Programming for Non-English Speakers at CQUniversity and Sebha University http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2258 <p>Since computers have become widely used, programming has become a critical skill. Programming languages are built upon English language words and phrases. It is possible that this could make learning an English-based programming language for non-English language speakers especially challenging. In actuality, the literature did not say much. While many focused on solutions to teaching programming, and some researchers focused on the problems that led to these solutions, very few researchers made any distinction between the language capabilities of novices. Based on the literature, this research study highlights issues that directly influence beginners learning programming, looking particularly at the difficulties faced by those that do not have English as a first language. The methodological approach used in this research is a mixed methods design, with the questionnaire method for data collection in both CQUniversity in Australia and Sebha University in Libya, with experienced programmers and novice programmers in various stages of their study. These data were categorized and analysed to identify areas of difficulty. It became clear that there was a difference. While Australian students identified issues with loop statements (Do...While) and other program logic, Libyan students identified the major problem to be error messages and their interpretation, with over 71% of students identifying this as a problem. However, error messages were mentioned by just 2% of participants at CQUniversity. It was clear that English was a problem.</p> Ibrahim Nnass Michael A. Cowling Roger Hadgraft Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 290 295 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2258 Eighteen Years of Sebha University Publication Productivity: below the expectations http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2133 <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze Sebha University publication productivity in all scientific fields in four well known research databases (CrossRef, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, and Elsevier Scopus), from the beginning of millennia until 2018. The study measures various aspects of the publications productivity, such as the citation patterns, the sum of citation counts across all papers, average number of citations per year, average number of citations per author, average number of papers per author, average number of authors per paper, distribution of article by year, authorship patterns, authors’ degree of collaboration, distribution of citations by faculty, distributions of publication by subject, type of publication, and length of publication. The results confirm that the research productivity in the humanities fields is limited when compared to applied sciences regarding the respected databases. Moreover, the results reveal that the faculty of science is leading the publication productivity, followed by faculty of engineering science, then faculty of medicine, and lastly, faculty of dentistry. The study concluded with several recommendations to apply a catch-up strategy to increase the university research productivity. Bibliometric studies on the scientific fields for Sebha University are not available. Therefore, the originality of this study resides in being the first study to measure the publication productivity of Sebha University.</p> Mansour Essgaer Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 92 103 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2133 The national state in the Arab countries between the stakes of democratic reconstruction and the obstacles of reality http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2139 <p>This study comes to discuss the stakes of building a national state in the Arab region after 2011, stemming from the most prominent common features of the political systems in the Arab region before 2011 and highlighting the most important problems of state building in the Arab region. The study concluded with the emergence of a major challenge that penetrated most Arab countries, especially in light of the Arab movement, which is mainly represented in the identity dilemma and the growth of the formative difference of Arab societies in the single national state (sects, races, ethnicities, regions), in addition to the location of the army institution, which impeded the construction process in most of the countries. The countries that experienced the revolution of democratic change - most notably Egypt, Yemen, Sudan and Tunisia recently - made rebuilding the national state democratically difficult in light of the growing role of the external factor inciting these components .</p> Arb ladmi mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 132 139 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2139 The impact of the monetary crisis on some economic variables in the Libyan economy during the period (2011-2021) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2144 <p>This study aimed at defining the economic and non-economic causes of the monetary crisis in the Libyan economy, as well as knowing the impact of the monetary crisis on the (selected) economic variables represented in the real GDP, inflation rate, and the volume of bank credit during the study period. It also used the descriptive approach by describing Its variables are related to their diagnosis and their effects, as it was concluded that the money supply outside the banking system during the study period affected the real gross product significantly, due to the increase in the money supply to economic and non-economic reasons, the most important of which is the leakage of deposits from the banking system as a result of the lack of customer confidence, and the lack of stability The political and economic situation in Libya, which affected the situation of economic and monetary stability, that the increase in the money supply outside the banking system may not lead to an increase in the general level of prices (inflation rate) in the Libyan economy from time to time, that the increase in money supply and the decrease in the volume of credit is due to a factor The inability of banks to expand granting credit directed towards economic and commercial activities, as it was suggested to achieve political stability and economic conditions Security and financial discipline, and work to address the challenges and obstacles that impede the oil export process, which caused a decrease in the volume of foreign exchange.</p> Ibrahim Ali Sagheir Alwali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 173 181 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2144 Elevated Temperatures Impact on the Mechanical Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Hybrid Fibers http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2112 <p>Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is a combined material that will allow the concrete industry to enhance material consumption, produce economic benefits, be more durable, and be more environmentally friendly. Due to the highly dense microstructure of RPC, it performs poorly at high temperatures due to the formation of high pore pressure, which causes material breakdown. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of an investigational study of the behavior of six RPC mixes incorporating hybrid steel and plastic waste (polypropylene) fibers after being subjected to high temperatures of up to 500 ºC. Residual compressive strength, residual splitting strength, and density were performed for all the RPC mixes. The results demonstrate that the drop in the compressive strength of RPC is greater than the reduction in their corresponding splitting strength. Furthermore, within a temperature range of about 500 ºC, this mechanical strength showed a noticeable decrease. The decrement of splitting strength ranged between about 8% to 33% . Steel and polypropylene fibers also improve the residual strength of RPC samples. On the basis of these results, a mix containing mixed fibers (25 % steel and 75 % polypropylene) is recommended as appropriate for extreme temperature applications.</p> Zainab M. R. Abdul Rasoul Mushtaq Sadiq Radh Laith Mohammed Ridha Mahmmod Aymen J. Alsaad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 1 5 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2112 Fusarium mycotoxins and Future Challenges for Global Food Safety "A Comprehensive and Updated Review" http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2168 <p>The genus Fusarium spp. produces a number of mycotoxins that are toxic secondary metabolites with various chemical structures "Fusariotoxins" such as Fumonisins (FUMs), Zearalenone (ZEA) and Trichothecenes (A and B). There also increasing attention of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins as Beauvericin (BEA), Enniatins and Moniliformin (MON). These secondary metabolites “Mycotoxins” have usually found in several agricultural crops mainly in wheat, corn, barley and oats with high concentrations. This contamination by mycotoxins was occurred either during the field / or after harvest, as well as during storage when appropriate environmental conditions are available. Importantly, the contamination of food grain crops with fungi and mycotoxins leads to loss of dry matter, quality and nutrition, and poses a significant risk to the food chain. As contamination of cereal crops with mycotoxins can be reduced a product quality and export values, and thus lead to significant economic losses for producing countries. Mycotoxin contamination could directly reduce the food availability and its contribution to spread hunger cases and malnutrition, and consumption of food contaminated with mycotoxins has significant implications for human health. Interestingly, Fusarium toxins have attracted worldwide attention due to their adverse effects on animal productivity, and their associated with economic losses. Moreover, many studies have confirmed that consuming food contaminated with mycotoxins resulting from Fusarium fungi has varying toxic effects, whether for humans and/or animals, as it can cause acute or chronic illness and, in some cases, death. For instance, a range of Fusarium mycotoxins can alter different intestinal defense mechanisms, result in in visible, liver cancer, cell death and demolition of living tissues. In this paper, we a comprehensive review of Fusarium mycotoxins and their metabolites with the aim of summarizing the basic information on the types, occurrence, health impacts of these mycotoxins and modern methods for detecting and quantifying fusarium toxins, and international legislation for fusarium toxins, in order to encourage much-needed research on integrated management of this unavoidable food contaminant as concerns for food safety continues to grow worldwide.</p> Safieddin. A. Inbaia Giuma. A. Al-Hafi Lutfi. A. Al-Maslati Abdurazag.A. Hakam Hamza. M.Al-Nouiri Miloud. A. Amhemed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 219 236 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2168 Agile Project Management Approaches: A Case Study with Respect to Their Application in Finance Technology Projects http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2118 <p>The strategy of Financial Services in Libyan pioneer companies has begun to achieve a transformation from providing ordinary services to electronic services through financial services technologies, which necessitates the qualification of employees in Libyan software companies. To facilitate this, recent agile software agile project management strategies and their possible advantages, disadvantages, and possible limitations will be discussed. In the context of improving software development for changing work conditions or requirements, he current state of agile project management (APM) will be studied and enhancement with best APM practices will be implemented within Masarat IT &amp; Financial Services, a pioneer Libyan company. Our findings demonstrate that the application of agile project management best practices has a positive impact on project success. The benefits of agility were immediately apparent, and the advantages of adopting APM methodologies were a crucial factor in successfully completing the project.</p> Hatim Abu Irtaymah Hala Shaari Nuredin Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 24 29 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2118 The negative effects of waste on the urban environment in the city of Khums (Waste to sustainable energy) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2195 <p>Waste is one of the biggest problems faced by some countries of the world, especially in developing countries, and this matter is due to several reasons, including the increasing population density, the lack of awareness among most segments of society, the adoption of incorrect methods to get rid of it, as well as the spread of bad smell and annoying scenes, and for this Solutions had to be found, either through reuse and recycling, or by converting them into energy sources. One of the common problems at the present time is the frequent blackouts in many cities in Libya for long periods, to solve this problem must be found a possibility of providing clean, renewable energy, and as the idea of converting waste into energy sources is not modern, and it is currently considered the third source of energy Renewable. That is why this study was concerned with spreading the culture of using sustainable renewable energies and the role of the faculty member in supporting them. For this, a questionnaire was made and distributed electronically to a segment of faculty members in the Department of Architecture in higher education institutions in Libya.</p> Waled Abdulslam Freewan Abdalsalam Mohamed Alrachidy Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 254 260 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2195 Arabic Font Desigin Using Quadratic Bezier-Like Curve http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2125 <p>This paper has constructed a linear quadratic Bézier-like curve with two shape parameters. The proposed work is to design the Arabic fonts by using Bezier-like curves. The focus of this study is to study the new functions of the Bezier-like curve and look at their application in designing Arabic fonts. Our new procedures involve a combination of quadratic and linear polynomial basis functions. The new functions of rational and non-rational Bezier-like curve are used to design Arabic fonts. The shape of the curve is modified as desired by simply altering the values of the shape parameters without changing the control polygon. The present study also looks at the extent of the approximation of the Arabic script design to its digitized image using the Bezier-like curves. The results of this study confirm that all generated functions can give the very visually pleasing shapes of the Arabic fonts similar to the original.</p> Iman Aissa Alghannay Ahmed Almbok Hussin Alsonosi Omar Jamaludin Md Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 50 56 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2125 Effects of Ethephon treatments on Ripening and Uniformity of Fig Fruit (Ficus carica. L) http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2222 <p>The current experiment was carried out to determine the effect of the application of ethephon on the maturation of “Peter” figs. Fig fruits were treated with three aqueous concentrations of ethephon (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) during the developmental stage. The physic-chemical characteristics, such as fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, total soluble solids (TSS), and fruit acidity were recorded and analysed. The results showed that ethephon application during the developmental period of the fig fruits significantly accelerated fruit ripening and enhanced the fruits’ uniformity. Fig fruits treated with ethephon showed increased TSS compared to untreated fruits, and the acidity of the treated fruit decreased compared to that of untreated fruits.&nbsp; Additionally, TSS/ acidity ratio was significantly higher in 1500 ppm treatment in comparison with other treatments. On the basis of our data, we conclude that the application of ethephon to fig fruit increases ripening and uniformity of the fruit.</p> Marei Mahmoud Abdullah Idress Ahmed Al Gehani Idris Abdulaziz El Twail Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 282 284 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2222 Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles alone and in combination with erythromycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2131 <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>S. aureus</em> is a major pathogen and the predominant bacteria that causes hospital-acquired infections. TiO2NPs have unique characteristics and expanding use for different applications in nanomedicine and have attracted enormous interest in the various rising nanoproducts.<strong> Objective: </strong>To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities of TiO2NPs alone and in combination with the macrolide class of drugs (Erythromycin) against <em>S. aureus</em> isolated from different clinical specimens.<strong> Methods:</strong> Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusion technique was applied for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against <em>S. aureus</em> isolates. The Minimum inhibitory concentrations of TiO2NPs and erythromycin were performed with the broth microdilution method, while biofilm formation was investigated by the Calgary technique.<strong> Results:</strong> At a total of eighty-five strains of S. aureus clinical isolates from patients who are in hospitals in the medical city of Baghdad, 34 (40%) of S. aureus were sensitive to penicillin class (Methicillin) while 51 (60%) were resistant to methicillin, with statistical significance between both groups (P &lt;0.05). In urine samples, the majority of <em>S. aureus</em> isolates were 21 (24.7%), followed by sputum with 14 (16.5%) samples. Patients infected with <em>S. aureus</em> were significant among age groups of 45–54 years old and patients with Ages between 15 and 35 indicate a lower susceptibility to S. aureus infection.mThe results showed that the prevalence of infection with <em>S. aureus</em> was significantly higher among female patients 30 (35.3%) rather than male patients 21 (24.7%), and the male/female ratio was 0.46/1. Vancomycin and imipenem were the most active antibiotics against MSSA and MRSA, with sensitivity of 85 (100%) and 82 (96.5%) for vancomycin and imipenem, respectively, whereas MRSA and MSSA exhibited marked resistance to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, with sensitivity of 64 (75.3%) and 38 (44.7%), respectively.mTiO2NPs showed excellent biofilm inhibitory activity against MRSA and MSSA isolates, and results showed that TiO2 NPs alone with ½MIC can inhibit biofilm formation by about 40% of MRSA and about 60% of MSSA. Moreover, the combination of TiO2 NPs with erythromycin inhibits biofilm formation by approximately 80–90% for MRSA and MSSA, respectively.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Issam Jumaa Naser Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 276 281 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2131 Study Of the Effect of Operating Frequency on The Needle Antenna Used in The Treatment Hepatic Tumors by Microwave http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2136 <p>Microwave ablation (MWA) is a type of heat therapy, and it is a process that uses heat from microwave energy to destroy cancer cells, a coaxial antenna (needle) is inserted into biological tissues, and the radiation emitted from the antenna is absorbed by the tissues and causes the cancer cells to heat up. This paper aimed to study the interaction between electromagnetic waves with tissues for treating liver cancer, and this was done by performing a two-dimensional digital simulation using the finite element method, and Maxwell's equations and bio-temperature equation are used to estimate the electric field and temperature distribution in liver tissues, and the heat is generated by the antenna to destroy the cancer cells. In addition, the effect of operating frequency on the performance of the needle antenna was studied by analyzing the electrical and thermal effects to find out the specific absorption rate (SAR), the temperature distribution in the liver tissue, and the damaged portion of the cancer cells. The numerical results showed that the absorbed power density, the surface distribution of the temperature and the specific absorption rate, as well as the damaged part of the tumor are affected by the operating frequency, and the results showed that the relationship between the heating time of the tumor with the diameter of the destroyer that was destroyed was 100% the best time used at t = 10min, As it was found that this time was the best time for the size of the tumor under study after its use, and the largest diameter was destroyed when increasing the frequency d = 20mm.</p> S.B.Almabrok M.M.Abulaweenat Y.A.Abdulkarim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 121 127 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2136 Chemical Analysis of Drink Water Samples for some Water Purification and Treatment Stations in El-Beida City - Libya and Compared with Residential and Mineral Water http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2142 <p>This study was conducted in the city of El-Beida-Libya on different samples from 11 drinking water purification and treatment stations, compared with the source water (residential water) and some of the most popular mineral water samples in the&nbsp; Libyan local markets. During this work, a number of chemical properties of the studied samples were examined, such as pH, Electric Conductivity (EC) (µS/cm),Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (mg/l), Alkalinity (as HCO3-) (mg/l), Total Hardness (TH) (mg/l), Ca++(mg/l), Mg++ (mg/l), Na+(mg/l), K+ (mg/l), Cl- (mg/l) and NO3- (mg/l). The results obtained in the current study indicate that there are variation among stations. Whereas the pH values were ranged between (5.99 - 7.48), EC values were ranged (10.03 – 590 µS/cm), TDS values were ranged (5 - 283.33), Alkalinity (as HCO3-) values were ranged (44.73- 390.40 mg/l), Total hardness values were ranged (8.01-248.20 mg/l), Ca++ values were ranged (3.2-99.42 mg/l), Mg++ (1.92-59.52 mg/l), Na+ (1.92-23.24 mg/l), K+ (0.03-1.95 mg/l), Cl- (9.46-56.74 mg/l) and NO3- (6.33-12.17 mg/l). Most of the parameters analyzed in this study were within the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Libyan National Centre for Standardization and Metrology ( LNCSM) for drinking water while few others were not. Overall, the water from all the locations was found to be safe as drinking water except for the sample number S8 (Al Nabaa for drinking water purification and treatment), which is considered poor quality in terms of chemical properties specifications.</p> Tariq A. M.Tyeb Galal M. Elmanfe Jibreel A. Asbeeh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 151 159 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2142 The Effect of Quenching Media on the Hardness of Low Carbon Steel http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2152 <p>Steels with desired properties are essential and always required by many industries. This paper highlights some heat treatment operations with various cooling media to achieve different rapid cooling rates. This was carried out by heating samples of low carbon steel to a specific temperature and then cooling them rapidly in 8 different quenching media in order to obtain a specific microstructure of steel. These heat-treated samples were then tested mechanically using the Brinell hardness test (BH). The results show that the quenching mediums affect the mechanical properties and hence the microstructures of low carbon steels and the effect varies depending on the types of quanchants employed.</p> Taha Abdullah Abdulhakeem B. Miskeen Mohammed A. Al-Madani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 199 205 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2152 The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder on hydroxychloroquine -induced kidney tissues injury http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2116 <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves powder on Hydroxychloroquine induced kidney tissue injury. White male rats were used, and dried Moringa leaf powder was given to them with lunch for 3 weeks to play a protective role in the body, they were dosed orally&nbsp; by tube prepared daily for 5 days with hydroxychloroquine in different doses (1000, 500,250 mg /kg b.wt). Urea and creatinine levels were determined in the serum in addition to the histopathology of the kidney, and the hematological effects were determined for this medicine in the rats.</p> <p>The results showed a significant increase in the urea level and the concentration of creatinine in rats that had been given hydroxychloroquine compared to normal and treated groups with M. oleifera. Also, treatment with M. oleifera&nbsp; showed a very significant drop in urea level. There was&nbsp; an apparent change in the urea level with experience. A significant increase in the count of RBCs was recorded for the hydroxychloroquine group concentration of 1000 mg/kg, compared to the control group and the other groups. And that recorded significant increase in the content of Hb and count of Platelet was recorded for the hydroxychloroquine group concentration 1000 mg/kg, compared to the control group and the other group's .at P value &lt; 0.05. The effects of tissue degradation by hydroxychloroquine were improved when treated with Moringa oleifera&nbsp; leaves&nbsp; powder.</p> Wafaa Mohammad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 13 18 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2116 The Effect of Wet Cupping Treatment on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile Among Women Attending Al-Shifa Cupping Center in Al-Zawiya - Al-Shati Libya. http://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/jopas/article/view/2171 <p>Wet cupping has been used as an alternative treatment for many diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of wet cupping treatment on the lood pressure and the lipid profile of healthy adult women and women with hypertension. Samples were collected from 27 women undergoing cupping therapy, 12 of whom had high blood pressure and 15 of them were healthy. Blood pressure was measured before and after 30 minutes of cupping therapy for both groups, blood samples were collected before and after half an hour of cupping for assessment of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides, all participants were fasted for 10-12 hours before sample collection. Results: Diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood were decreased significantly after cupping in both groups, (P value less than 0.05), and systolic pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased in women with high blood pressure, but not affected in healthy women. The concentration of high-density lipoprotein HDL increased after cupping in both groups (P value less than 0.05). Conclusions: Cupping could be a useful complementary method for blood pressure regulation, and prevention of cardiovascular disease risk factors.</p> Mabroukah Muhamad Alzwayi Ibtihaj AbdelQader Muftah Mabrouka Ahmed Milad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 21 4 246 250 10.51984/jopas.v21i4.2171