Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences <p>Journal of Pure &amp; Applied Sciences (JOPAS) is a part of Sebha university journals and published by Sebha University. JOPAS is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. JOPAS is committed to publish the latest research updates from scientists, researchers and students worldwide through one of the world’s best Open Journal Platforms. It publishes review article, regular article and short communication in all fields of pure and applied sciences. The different fields include but not limited to biological, natural and pure sciences. All articles will be peer reviewed with at least two blinded reviewers. Accepted manuscripts are published online as soon as the author approved the final proof. There are two volumes per year with unlimited numbers of articles. Accepted articles will be added to the current volume without any delay. Publishing with JOPAS is absolutely free in other words there will not be any handling, processing charges. </p> Sebha University en-US Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2708-8251 <p>In a brief statement, the rights relate to the publication and distribution of research published in the journal of the University of Sebha where authors who have published their articles in the journal of the university of Sebha should how they can use or distribute their articles. They reserve all their rights to the published works, such as (but not limited to) the following rights:<br>- Copyright and other property rights related to the article, such as patent rights.<br>- Research published in the journal of the University of Sebha and used in its future works, including lectures and books, the right to reproduce articles for their own purposes, and the right to self-archive their articles.<br>- The right to enter a separate article, or for a non-exclusive distribution of their article with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in the journal of Sebha University.<br>Privacy Statement The names and e-mail addresses entered on the Sabha University Journal site will be used for the aforementioned purposes only and for which they were used.</p> Developing an Editor for Drawing Class Diagram within WinCASE Framework <p>Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools are significant for the software engineering field. They provide great support to software developers. WinCASE tool is one of these tools. It was invented in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Sheffield. Furthermore, dataflow Algebra is a methodology that is used to describe a formal specification of a system. Dataflow Algebra was also developed in the same department. Unified Modeling Language is a standard language for developing software systems. The class diagram is one of the UML diagrams which illustrates the system objects. This paper aims to upgrade the WinCASE tool by developing the Class diagram within the framework of this tool. Therefore, this paper reviewed the previous work and the background of the WinCASE framework, class diagram, Dataflow Algebra, the requirements of integrating the Class Diagram, and the methodology of this integration. Subsequently, &nbsp;the class diagram was implemented into the WinCASE framework; and then tested, and evaluated successfully as well. As a result, the WinCASE was provided with an editor for drawing the class diagram.</p> Alhadi Klaib Abdelrahman Arbi Ragab Ihnissi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-01-09 2022-01-09 21 1 1 5 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1413 Flood Estimation in Al Qattara basin, southeast of Benghazi- Libya, by integrating the US Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model, geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques. <p>Estimation of water surface run-off in drainage basins significant to estimating the extent of its investment in various areas of human use. In this study, a hydromorphometric analysis was conducted for the Al Qattara Basin, located in the southeast of Benghazi-Libya, using remote sensing techniques, geographic information systems and the US Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model. The study results display that, Al Qattara Basin has an area of ​​1074.81km<sup>2</sup> with length of 89.5km, with shape is close to a triangle, and still in the stage of maturity. The density of drainage in the basin is high due to the permeability of most of its rocks, and its streams are arranged according to the Streller method from1 to8. The concentration time in Al Qattara basin 19.55hr and response time 11.73hr indicates that low probability of flooding. The maximum water flow in Al Qattara basin is 171.6m<sup>3</sup>/sec with peak time of 13.03hr and an average surface runoff flow of 5.01m<sup>3</sup>/sec. At the end of the study, it is recommended to design a rainwater drainage network in the city to suit the annually rainfall quantities to ensure its drainage. Also, construct obstructive dams in application of the principle of rainwater harvesting. Using the integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques to study the morphometric and hydrological characteristics of drainage basins in Libya to develop plans to reduce flood risks by creating an available morphometric, climatic and hydrological database.</p> lubna bentaher Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-01-24 2022-01-24 21 1 6 15 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1649 Study the Effect of Laser on some Natural Dyes, Pharmaceutical Drugs and Chemical Compounds <p>Due to the change of some drugs and natural products in the chemical components or chemical structure by exposing them to a laser beam or light, and the effect of heavy metals that may be present in them as a component in them, or as impurities in some medicines, colored dyes, and natural products. The presence of light and laser beam has been studied at time 40 minutes. There are chemical reactions or chemical bonds that may form between the metal ions of medicines such as ibuprofen, folic acid, librex, ranitidine, albendazole and the iron drug, except for Ca 2+ and Ni 2+ because they have the same λ max, and, the pigments found in carrots, red cabbage, beets, turmeric, and maringa , sage, excluding Ca 2+ and Ni 2+ due to having the same λ max, beet, folic acid, iporphine, and, turmeric had the most changes with metal ions, Cu, Ca, Ag, Ni, Fe, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn and Mn ions after inducing the laser beam. The Ca 2+, and Ni 2+ ions are the most stable ions with all drugs, and pigments extracted from natural products than the rest of the other ions. Previous studies focused on studying the effect of the laser beam on chemical compounds, both separately. In this study, they focused on the effect of the laser beam on medicines and natural dyes, as well as what they may contain of heavy metals or impurities and the chemical changes that occur with them.</p> Hamdy matter Tariq M. Ayad Abdelrahman A.I. Alkatly Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 21 1 16 23 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1391 ICP-OES Analysis of some Nonessential Trace Elements in Hen's Eggs <p>Eight trace elements (Al, V, Ni, As, Ba, Cd, Pb, and Hg) were quantitatively studies in three kinds of hen egg samples (home, street, and market hen eggs) collected from different regions in Aden city-Yemen including Al-Buraiqeh, Al-Hiswah, Khormaksar, and Shaikh Othman. Samples were wet digested and quantitatively analyzed by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) technique. Neglecting not detected values (ND), the range concentrations (in ppm units) of elements in hen’s eggs were in the range 0.407-7.414 for Al, 0.116-0.645 for V, 0.320-3.130 for Ni, 14.35-21.21 for As, 0.180-4.700 for Cd, 1.372-4.054 for Ba, and 12.078-15.14 for Pb. Since Yemen country does not screen the explored elements in this foodstuff, the recent work was done by comparing the results with other values reported in the literature and international standards. The mean concentrations of some studied elements such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead in some samples were exceeded the acceptable limits as detailed by presented international specifications and standards. The systematic national testing of hen's eggs production and the quality of environment and hen's feeds should be considered to protect public health.</p> Adel Saeed Alkhader S. K. Mohammed Mokhtar S.S. Al-Salimi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 21 1 28 34 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1611 Accounting disclosure of green bonds as a tool for achieving sustainable development <p>The accounting disclosure about the elements of sustainable development in general has received great attention from academic researchers, with the increasing interest in the dimensions of sustainable development SD. Previous literature, whether international or local, provided valuable insights into the significant role that accounting disclosure plays on economic, social, and environmental performance in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but the accounting disclosure of green bonds has been neglected in research, and considering that green bonds are One of the modern practices of sustainable development, the current study responded to this research gap, as it aims to identify the role played by the accounting disclosure of green bonds in achieving sustainable development. The study used the integration of the inductive method, the deductive method, the historical method, and the descriptive method. The basic data were collected by means of a questionnaire specially developed for the purpose of the study. After analyzing the statistical data for (24) responses collected from accountants working at Al Yaqin Bank, the results showed a positive trend about the role played by the accounting disclosure of green bonds in achieving sustainable development. The accounting disclosure of green bonds has a positive role in improving the bank’s financing policy to support sustainable development, and assisting it in deciding the continuity of financing to support environmental projects, and it also achieves the bank’s profitability and contributes to improving its performance. The study extracted a proposed model that enables banks in general to make more effective decisions about issuing green bonds with the aim of serving the environment and the sustainable development. This model was based on the knowledge of the issuer of green bonds on four basic factors that must be made available to the beneficiary organization (the environmental orientation of the organization, its previous activities in supporting of the environment, its future plans, and its study for the employment of green finance).</p> Eyad Ali Belhaj Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-04-12 2022-04-12 21 1 72 82 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1636 Morphological feature of Pelagia noctiluca (Forskål, 1775) (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in western Libyan coast, Tripoli <p>The Jellyfish cnidarians are important consumers of zooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea previously known. The aim of this study is to classification this species of jellyfish and examination morphological structure. The samples were collected from the Tripoli coast of Libya in September 2018 by scoop net. The number of samples was 31 individuals, collected to study the morphological structure measurements and wet weight. The results of the morphological structure showed the diameter of medusa 2.3 - 13.4cm, while the total length was 4.5 - 17cm, and the length of four oral arms was 2.4 - 12.9cm, the length of eight tentacles was 1.8 - 15cm and wet weight was 2.0 -73g. Based on morphological features and classification, the species was identified as Pelagia noctiluca (Forskål, 1775), but the differences between individuals in medusa size and wet weight indicate refers to different ages. So, this species is considered the first appearance on the Libyan coast.</p> Najla Abushaala Abdulfattah Elfituri Abdullah Ben Abdullah Hanan Shtewi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 21 1 24 27 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1374 Application of Shannon and Simpson Diversity Index to Study Plant biodiversity on Coastal Rocky Ridges Habitats with Reference to Census Data in the Ras El-Hekma and Omayed Area on the Western Coastal Region of Egypt <p>Biodiversity is a word recently introduced by experts in field of biology, and it is important for ecosystem health and productivity, biodiversity is one of the primary interests of ecologists, and the widely used diversity indices are Shannon’s and Simpson’s index. <br>This study aims to characterize the plant communities and to identify and compare the plant species diversity in the Ras El-Hekma area and Omayed protectorate. The results of the application of the indices of plant biodiversity in both the Ras El-Hekma area and the Omayed protectorate showed that the value of the Shannon index ( H' ) 2.058 and 2. 322, the value of the Simpson index ( D ) 0.85 and 0.92, the value of the Evenness index ( E ) 0.89 and 0.96, the value of Effective Number of Species ( ENSSh , ENSSi ) 6.66, 7.83 and 12.5, 10.19 respectively. The results demonstrated the highest values were recorded in the community of Omayed protectorate compared with the Ras El-Hekma area. The results also revealed that ( H' ) in the two communities 2 ≥ H' &lt; 3. According to the criteria of diversity index, they were moderate diversity. As for the Evenness index (E), 0.75 &gt;E ≤ 1. According to the categorized of the Evenness index, both are stable community.<br>Through the results, diversity indices indicate that there is a more diverse community in the Omayed protectorate compared with the Ras El-Hekma area. The reason may be due to the individuals in Omayed was more evenly distributed among the species than the individuals in Ras El-Hekma. Based on the interpretation of the criteria and categories of Shannon, Simpson, Evenness and Effective Number of Species indices, this meant that the Omayed had high environmental wellness and biodiversity level. Both indices are more reflective in nature and can predict the ecosystem health. Therefore, it may be good to have one of these biodiversity indices to be used for plant communities to understand the ecosystem healthiness in the habitats.</p> omar sharashy Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-02-14 2022-02-14 21 1 41 45 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1578 UV-Vis Spectroscopic Study on a New Synthesized 4-Hydroxy-N-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]benzohydrazide as Calorimetric Reagent For Mg2+ Ions <p>This study is concerned about the study of the chromogenic properties of hydrazone&nbsp;compound, i.e. 4-hydroxy-N-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-methylidene]benzo-hydrazide towards magnesium ion recognition. The hydrazone compound was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The complexation ability of the studied ligand towards Mg<sup>2+</sup> was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Experimental parameters that affect the ligand-metal ion complexation such as effect of solvent, standing time, metal concentration and ligand concentration were investigated. Results show that HNHMB is preferentially to bind with Mg<sup>2+</sup> in ethanol. The addition of Mg<sup>2+</sup> to the ligand in ethanol gives rise to a large hyerchromic shift resulting in a colour darkness. From the linear regression analysis, Beer’s law was obeyed in at least 0.1–1.4× 10<sup>-4 </sup>M. The complex showed maximum absorptions (λ<sub>max</sub>) at 396 nm.</p> Abdassalam A. A. Tameem Abdussalam S. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 21 1 83 86 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1702 Determination of Vitamin C Concentration in Samples of Fruits and Vegetables by Volumetric Methods <p>This research was conducted to estimate the concentration of vitamin C in fresh juices for forty-six samples of different fruits and vegetables, the concentration of vitamin C was estimated by titration method using standard iodine solution. The highest concentration of avocado sample was (268.4 mg/100ml), and the lowest value was for pear sample (11 mg/100ml). As for vegetable samples, the values ​​ranged from (222.2-11 mg/100ml), where the highest concentration was for red sweet pepper (222.2 mg /100ml). The lowest value for the two samples of cucumber and red lottery was equal (11 mg/100ml). <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> Ezadeen Pashloa Ragiab A. M. Issa Rehab Said Marwa Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-03-27 2022-03-27 21 1 49 54 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1404 Further Remarks On Somewhere Dense Sets <p>In this article, we prove that a topological space X is strongly hyperconnected iff any somewhere dense set in X is open, in addition we investigate some conditions that make sets somewhere dense in subspaces, finally, we show that any topological space defined on infinite set X has SD-cover with no proper subcover.</p> Khadiga Arwini Huda Almqtouf Mira Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 21 1 46 48 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1630 Effect of Force molting method on Egg quality parameters <p>Estimation This study was conducted in the laboratories of the Faculty of Agriculture at Misurata University. A total of 120 fresh eggs were collected from laying hens of commercial hybrids Hy-Line With36 strain. Then, samples were divided into two groups, The first group (WN) included 60 eggs from non-molting laying hens aged 16 months, and the second group (WM) included 60 eggs from Force-molted laying hens aged 10 months in the second cycle. The eggs were numbered and the external quality was estimated by weighing each egg, egg shape index (longitudinal and transverse axis), shell thickness, internal quality estimation by the thick albumen height, yolk index, and yolk color estimation. The results illustrated that there were significant differences in the egg weight and egg shape index of forced non-molting laying hens at the level of significance (P&gt;0.05). There was a direct relationship between the egg’s weight, the shell’s thickness, and the age of the hen, as well as the presence of a direct relationship between the height of the thick albumen height to estimate the Haugh unit with both the weight and the shape index of the egg. The compulsively Force-molted was significantly better than the non-molting laying hens, and the yolk index was suitable for the specifications of the standard extra fresh egg for the Force-molted and non-molting laying hens. There were no significant differences between the colors of the yolk in the Force-molted and non-molting laying hens due to the similarity of feeding.</p> Awatef M. Alfituri Bashir M. Sherif Ziyad T. BenMahmoud Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 21 1 34 40 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1428 Studying the Causality Relationship between Inflation and Money Supply in the Libyan Economy Using Tod -Yamamomoto's Methodology <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Using the methodology of standard strings analysis this paper examined and analyzed the relationship between money supply and inflation in the Libyan economy, during the period 198-2018; to reach this goal, the stationary of the two variables of the study was tested using the unit root test that was reached by the Extended Dickey - Fuller method, then a cointegration test.&nbsp; With the Angel-Granger methodology to test the relationship in the long run, then these tests were supplemented with the causation test, as it consisted of the Granger test in the short term and Toda-Yamamomoto's choice of causation in the long term;&nbsp; The results showed that each of the study variables stabilized after taking the first difference for them, while the results of the causation test for Granger showed a circular relationship between the two variables in the short term, meaning that each variable causes the other, while the Toda-Yamamomoto causality test in the long term showed no&nbsp; A causal relationship between the two variables, none of which causes the other.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study recommends that the money supply management and the monetary authorities in Libya should manage the money supply in a practical way based on research papers that contribute to clarifying the relationship between money supply and inflation.&nbsp; Which would contribute to making correct decisions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abdulhakam Alderdeer Abdulbasit O. Mansour Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 21 1 55 61 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1610 Evaluation of the environmental impacts resulting from the spread of various industrial activities and fuel stations in the northwestern region of the coast extending from Tajoura in the east to Maya in the west and south to Qasr Bin-Ghashir and Al-Azeziez <p>Sixty samples of urban surface soil were collected to estimate the concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn and Cr, and measuring some environmental pollution indices and determination of its sources. The results showed that the mean concentration of measured heavy metals is higher than permissible values set by WHO and Canadian Council of Ministers of the environment (CCME). The results of pollution indices include Single Pollution Index (PI), Contamination Factor (CF), Contamination degree index (Cdeg), Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Load Index (PLI), Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) are either unpolluted to moderately polluted. Whoever, Single Ecological Risk Index (SERI) and the Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) are considered moderate environmental risks. The results of principal component analysis and factor analysis utilize to determine the sources of heavy metals in soil samples, results show the potential source of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu come mainly from human activities which related to industrial processes and traffic, whereas the possible source of Ni and Co could be rock components which related to soil origin materials, whereas, Cr and Cu might originate from mixed sources of natural and anthropogenic inputs. As for the Fe element, it is believed that its sole source is the geological inputs.</p> mansour salem Ali. A. alzarga Afia S. Alnash Omar M. Sharif Yasser F. Nassar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 2022-04-07 2022-04-07 21 1 62 71 10.51984/jopas.v21i1.1762