Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences <p>Journal of Pure &amp; Applied Sciences (JOPAS) is a part of Sebha university journals and published by Sebha University. JOPAS is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. JOPAS is committed to publish the latest research updates from scientists, researchers and students worldwide through one of the world’s best Open Journal Platforms. It publishes review article, regular article and short communication in all fields of pure and applied sciences. The different fields include but not limited to biological, natural and pure sciences. All articles will be peer reviewed with at least two blinded reviewers. Accepted manuscripts are published online as soon as the author approved the final proof. There are two volumes per year with unlimited numbers of articles. Accepted articles will be added to the current volume without any delay. Publishing with JOPAS is absolutely free in other words there will not be any handling, processing charges. </p> en-US <p>In a brief statement, the rights relate to the publication and distribution of research published in the journal of the University of Sebha where authors who have published their articles in the journal of the university of Sebha should how they can use or distribute their articles. They reserve all their rights to the published works, such as (but not limited to) the following rights:<br>- Copyright and other property rights related to the article, such as patent rights.<br>- Research published in the journal of the University of Sebha and used in its future works, including lectures and books, the right to reproduce articles for their own purposes, and the right to self-archive their articles.<br>- The right to enter a separate article, or for a non-exclusive distribution of their article with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in the journal of Sebha University.<br>Privacy Statement The names and e-mail addresses entered on the Sabha University Journal site will be used for the aforementioned purposes only and for which they were used.</p> (Dr. Mohamed Alamen Sharif) (Dr. Mohamed Erhayem) Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 OJS 60 The effect of Reguler training on improving 30 me privaf Physical opabilies, and the stander of profomance of the skills of young Footballers <p>The aim of the research is to identify the effect of regular training on improving some special physical abilities and the level of skillful performance of under-19 footballers at the Atalehah Sports Club in Ghat city. To achieve this, the research was conducted on a basic sample of 20 players. They were divided into two groups; one of which is experimental (10) A player and a control group of (10) players. The researcher used the experimental approach with the pre and post measurement of the two groups. Then, the researcher found equivalence between the experimental group and the control group in some of the variables that may affect the experimental variable. This led to similar results of previous researches and studies. The researcher identified the variables, which may affect the experimental variable and they are physical variables, so as not to attribute the differences between the experimental and control groups to these variables. The results showed the positive effect of regular and continuous training.</p> Salem Mohammed Ali Mousa Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Performance Evaluation Of Supervised Machine Learning Classifiers For Mapping Natural Language Text To Entity Relationship Models <p>Transforming natural language requirements into entities involves a thorough study of natural language text. Sometimes mistakes are made by designers when manually performing this transformation. Often, the process is time-consuming and inaccurate. Hence, multiple research studies have been performed to assist inexperienced designers in mapping a natural language text into entities and reducing the time and error that such a method entails. This work is part of those studies. Human intervention is a significant constraint for prior studies. In this paper, machine learning classifiers are used to eliminate human intervention. The system performs well in predicting entities and has achieved 85%, 75% and 80% for recall, precision and the F-score, respectively. The system also performs well in predicting nouns which do not represent entities and has achieved 68%, 79% and 76% for recall, precision and the F-score, respectively. The performance level of the system is the same as other model generation tools found in the literature. The system is distinguished from these tools in using machine learning classifiers as a technique for establishing entities with no human intervention. Furthermore, the study finds that when distinguishing entities from other nouns, logic-based classifiers, perceptron-based classifiers and SVM classifiers perform better than statistical learning classifiers. The decision tree classifier, neural network classifier and SVM classifier all work well. The decision tree is the better because it can provide a decision tree that defines when a noun is an entity and when it is not based on given features; this is not the case with the neural network classifier and SVM classifier.</p> Mussa A. Omar Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 The Causal Relationship between Money Supply and Real GDP in The Libyan Economy: Using The VAR Method <p>The paper aimed to study the causal relationship between changes in money supply and real output in the Libyan economy. The study used money supply in its broad concept (MS2) and real product (RGDP), for the period from 1980 to 2017, and the GRANGER causality test, TODA &amp; YAMAMATO causality test, the joint complementarily test and the error correction model were performed to determine the equilibrium relationship between the two variables in the short and long term. The results showed the existence of a one-way relationship as it moves from the money supply to the real output, and this result was in support of the monetarists ’theses about the effect of money on economic activity.</p> Alhadi Basher Alhadi , Omar Abolgasim Jibril Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 06 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Automated Glaucoma Diagnosis System Based on Fundus Images Features <p>Glaucoma is a disease that can damage the eye’s optic nerve and cause permanent vision loss or even total blindness if not detected in early stage and thus, it is important diagnose early to prevent blindness. Image processing techniques has been used to detect early glaucoma using the fundus images. In this paper, a computer aided glaucoma diagnosis system is proposed based on fundus image features. The optic disc and optic cup features are extracted from funds images and two parameters are calculated, namely: Cup to Disc Ratio (CDR) which indicates the enlargement of cup and the Inferior Superior to Nasal Temporal (ISNT) which determine the ratio of the thickness of the rim. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifiers are used to classify images into "Normal" or "Abnormal". The quality of both classifiers is evaluated and compared in terms of three performance metrics, namely: sensitivity, specificity and accuracy and satisfactory results have been achieved where the system accuracy is 95%. Moreover; Patient data such as age, family history of the disease, eye pressure and the last eye examination record were taken in account. The proposed system can categorize images into five categories: "no risk", "low risk", "moderate risk", "high risk" and "very high risk". </p> Ahmed B Abdurrhman, Fatima Ismail, Ibrahim A. Nasir, Fathi Alwafie Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Mon, 11 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Habitats, phytochemical metabolites and phytoremediation potential of Ranunculus sceleratus L. <p><em>Ranunculus sceleratus</em> L. (Ranunculaceae) is an invasive alien widespread species commonly distributed in canals and drains banks. In Egypt, this plant exhibits extensive growth with occasional pure populations in the Nile Delta region. This study aimed to address the drivers for <em>R. sceleratus</em> abundance, phytochemical composition, and phytoremediation efficiency. The average abundance of <em>R. sceleratus</em> within 60 stands of 25 m2 each was 47.9. The average root and stem lengths were 31.5 and 60.1 cm, respectively. The abundance of <em>R. sceleratus</em> was positively correlated with pH, electric conductivity, organic carbon, Fe, Mn, and Zn, while negatively correlated with total dissolved phosphorus, Cu, Co, Cd, and Pb. The shoot had the highest values of all bioactive-metabolites, where phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were recorded 23.16, 5.11, 14.78, 6.34 and 18.50 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. <em>R. sceleratus</em> had shoot and root bioaccumulation factors (BF) in the following orders: Cd&gt; Ni&gt; Cu&gt; Pb&gt; Zn&gt; Fe&gt; Mn&gt; Co. <em>R. sceleratus</em> had BFshoot value of more than one for Ni, Cu, and Pb, while BFroot was greater than one for Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Fe. Nevertheless, the translocation factor (TF) for all heavy metals were lower than one. Accordingly, <em>R. sceleratus</em> is a candidate for phytostabilization and/or phytoextraction tool for the most investigated heavy metals.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Salem Mousbah Khalifa , Badr Mohamed Badr Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 14 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Green Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles using Malva Parviflora <p>Green Synthesis of cupric Oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using the plant extract is an emerging field of extensive applications. In the present study, the CuONPs were carried out by reducing copper sulfate solution by the aqueous Malva parviflora leaves extract, where this plant is used as a reducing and capping agent. The precursor salt solution and reducing agent were mixed in a 1:4 volume ratio at 50 oC and pH=9. According to the UV-VIS spectrum, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band was observed at 262 nm. UV-VIS spectroscopy also was employed to estimate the band gap energy of CuO nanoparticles, in which the optical band gap was varied depending upon the particle size and copper sulfate concentration. The XRD was found that synthesized CuONPs were Amorphous structure. FT-IR spectrum revealed that the presence of flavonoid may be the significant cause of reducing and capping of CuONPs. Furthermore, the mechanism of CuO nanoparticle formation has also been discussed.</p> Wedad M. Barag, Fatma A. Shtewi, Awatif A. Tarroush Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Effect of Typha capensis crude rhizome extract on LNCaP prostate cancer cell line <p>Typha capensis, commonly referred to as one of indigenous medicinal plants that are traditionally used to treat male fertility problems and various other ailments. Previous studies revealed that T. capensis has indeed a beneficial effect on male reproductive functions and aging male symptoms. LNCaP cells incubated with different concentrations of crude aqueous extract of T. capensis rhizomes (0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) and control (without extract) for 24 and 96 hours, after incubation. The following parameters were evaluated: cell morphology and viability (determined by means of MTT assay). LNCaP cells showed a decline in cell viability at the incubation period 96 hours (-82.4%) more than 24 hours (-64.7%) indicating more cell death. cell early apoptosis (determined by means of Annexin V-Cy3 binding), DNA fragmentation (determined by means of the TUNEL assay). After 96 hours of exposure, all concentrations caused a dose-dependent increase in early apoptosis in the cells. At higher concentrations (10 and 100 μg/ml), a significant increase of 38.8% (P=0.009) and 52.3%(P&lt;0.001), respectively, in the percentage of cells with signs of early apoptosis was significant. a significant increase of TUNEL-positive cells was found between the control and 1, 10, 100 μg/ml.</p> Abdulkarem A. Ilfergane , Farag A. Muttardi , Fathi A. Attia Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 26 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Vascular calcification: Role of vascular smooth muscle cells and its regulation by microRNA <p>In this review, the aim is to discuss the pathological development of vascular calcification including a brief description of arterial wall structure and function, the development of atherosclerosis, highlighting&nbsp; normal physiological and vascular calcification with particular emphasis on their common characteristics, critically review the recent findings implicating the role of vascular smooth muscle cells in the pathogenesis of the calcification process including the role of microRNAs in regulation of these cells phenotype as a target to control cardiovascular calcification. &nbsp;</p> Abeer H. Amer , Manal. F. Yaya, Hasem H. Abdalla Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 28 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluation of using Google Classroom as a Tool for Asynchronous E-learning at Sebha University <p>Recently, technology is anywhere and everywhere, and education systems are affected by technology at a rapid pace, that increasingly advance the career of students as well as the teachers. The current worldwide trend is to learn online since the coronavirus pandemic outbreak, whereby E-learning is not optional rather it is mandatory. This study has been carried out to assess the effectiveness of E-Learning facility mainly Google Classroom at Sebha University. Five aspects of Google Classroom usage are measured including the perceived ease of use, the perceived usefulness, Communication and interaction, benefit, student satisfaction. A set of questionnaires have been distributed to a sample of 94 students in different bachelor and master subjects. The results shows that all the ratio of the five measured aspects where all above averages, which prove that majority of the students satisfy with the Google Classroom’s tool that were introduced in the class.</p> Mansour Alssager , Ibrahim Nasir Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Fresh cow's milk as an indicator of heavy metals pollution around the environment <p>The current study aimed to measure the concentration of heavy metals in cows' milk on different farms in Sebha. The farms were divided into two groups. The first group includes 7 farms located near the main road, while the second group includes 7 farms located outside the main road and works as a control group. Seven heavy metals (iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc, and copper) were measured using an atomic absorber. The results of the current study showed that the average concentration of heavy metals in the first group was (0.336, 37.500, 81.351, 19.389, 74.244, 50.3070, 0.320 mg / L), while in the second group, it was (0.311, 40.071, 68.857, 17.569, 46.557, 0.193, 0.266. The results of this study showed that there were no statistically significant differences compared to the control group. On the other hand, a significant increase (0.05 ≥ P) was observed in the levels of elemental lead. We conclude from this study that cows' milk may be a biological indicator of environmental pollution. Moreover, this indicator may be considered a risk factor that indicates that heavy metals have a bioaccumulation property. &nbsp;</p> Saada Maatouk Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 04 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Study the effect of honey and cinnamon on stimulating rooting process for some plants and compare them with the rooting hormone (Toniplant) <p>In this study Cinnamon powder and Honey were used as natural substances to activate root formation by vegetative reproduction method. Some of the plants were treated by the natural substances to compare with Toniplant hormone in both sandy and peatmoss soil. The findings of this study showed the possibility to form new roots of some plants even in non-reproduction seasons by the use of Cinnamon powder and Honey. this experiment took three months from 18/6/2018 to 20/9/2019 in the Garden of the Faculty of Science / Gharyan University. The results of this study confirmed that after statistically analysing by using the statistical program Minitab (16.2.0) the alternatives (honey and cinnamon) act as the hormone in sandy soils P&lt;0.05. In addition, the plants which were planted in peatmoss soil formed more root hairs than sandy soil taking onto consideration the species of the plant.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sh-hoob Mohamed El-ahmir, Youssef Mohamed Azzu, Manal Hasan, Waheba Salem Al-Jilani, Mabroka Alsadiq Kushlaf Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 An Economic Study of the Factors Affecting the Meat Chicken Production Farms in Bani Walid Municipality, Libya. <p>The study mainly aimed to identify&nbsp; the most important factors affecting the meat chicken production farms in Bani Walid municipality. study relied on primary data collected from the meat chicken producers in the study sample in 2020. Adescriptive and quantitative economic analysis and farm productivity function models were used to meet the objectives of the study. &nbsp;farm productivity to estimate economic efficiency. The field study indicated that the most important productive inputs affecting the production of meat chicken&nbsp; were the number of chicks, the quantity of feed and the value of veterinary care, and the significant effect of these inputs was proven at the level of 5%. The results showed that the factor of total productivity elasticity was estimated at about 1.090, which reflects the relationship of increasing return to capacity. It also showed the results of the study that the coefficient of economic efficiency in the total productive capacity swallowed about 1.11,1.56,1.65 for each of the inputs mentioned study sample, respectively.</p> Salah Alsunousi Lshteewi Lamah Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Study on loss processes in solar cells <p>Determining heat sources for solar cells is essential to avoid energy loss, which in turn causes the efficiency of solar cells to decrease and therefore, the loss processes have a significant impact on solar conversion. This paper presents a study of intrinsic and exogenous losses in solar cells, identification of the resulting energy loss at different temperatures, and discusses the impact of exogenous and spectral reflectivity on solar cell performance. The results show an increase in thermal loss with an increase in temperature, which in turn leads to a decrease in the efficiency of solar cells. Also explained that the external radiate efficiency, spectral reflectance and operating temperature significantly affect the loss processes. The efficiency of the cell begins to decrease with the decrease of its external radiate efficiency.</p> Ahmed B Abdurrhman, Fatima Zakria, Hamed A. Said Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 24 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Condition monitoring of Electrical Submersible Pumps (Faults review) <p>This paper is a part of condition monitoring of electrical submersible pumps (ESP). It assigned for reviewing and discussing faults or malfunctions of this kind of pumps. Therefore, it reviews all-important information related to this machine such as construction and operation. It focuses specifically on faults and details of these types of fault. Although there are slight differences between building submersible pumps in terms of the different technologies that different manufacturers use in making this type of pump, all kinds of these types of pumps are almost the same. In this context, pumps faults were reviewed based on major and common failures of this type of pumps.</p> Salem. A. Al-Hashmi Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 14 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0600 The impact of high food prices on food security <p>The FAO report of 2018 noted that the ongoing conflict in Libya has led to deterioration in the situation food security situation. The reports have pointed out that 24% of Libyan migrants are food insecure and up to 62% are at risk of food insecurity. It also pointed out that most Libyan families are reducing the amount of food consumption and are now eating the same meals without taking much care about the quality of the food. The study has targeted a random sample from Tripoli, city to determine the impact of high food prices on food security by paper and an electronic questionnaire containing 28 questions distributed to 200 people, Where 49.5% females and 50.5% males, ages are from 20 to more than 40 years old, Where the data columns were used as a tool for statistical data, in addition to identifying the relationship between income and family size in the city of Tripoli and their spending on food goods and what are the implications of that, using the econometrics program (Gretl) in estimating Food expenditure function. The study pointed out that these individuals rely on starchy foods because of cheap prices; they avoided food with high nutritional value because of high prices or lack of money to purchase them. Rising prices due to deterioration of the security situation may lead to one of the diseases of malnutrition and this of course, is contrary to the definition of food security, which should care of reaching financially to adequate, safe and nutritious food to meet their nutritional needs for an active and healthy life. The study concluded that 66% of its members were affected by the quality and 63% were affected by quantity of the meal they consume because of its high price. Which means that the prices have a massive impact on quality, quantity and the size of the individuals consumed meal, thus it may threatens their food security</p> Salsabil A. alyakobi , Abdul Razzaq A. Hakam , Usama M. Ben hamed Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 04 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Extent of External Auditing Efficiency in Limiting Creative Accounting Practices "Empirical Study on External Auditing bureau in Misrata" <p>After the collapse of large international companies and the emergence of the creative accounting methods, interest has increased in the audit process. For Companies&nbsp; to achieve its goals efficiently, have to apply auditing which is&nbsp; considered one of the main pillars of the corporate control system. This study aims to identify the extent of the efficiency of external auditing, and attempts to investigate its effect on creative accounting practices. In addition, the study aims to identify the extent to which the corporate management use creative accounting methods as perceived by&nbsp; external auditors and academics in the city of Misrata. Therefore, a questionnaire was designed for the purpose of collecting data to measure the study’s variables. The data analyzed using the (SPSS) statistical software program. This study contributed to enriching the theoretical side of the creative auditing and accounting process. The study found that the efficiency of external auditing is moderate, and that there is an existence of creative accounting practices in the companies studied. The finding also, showed that the efficiency of external auditing plays a vital role in limiting creative account accounting practices.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Abubaker Shaboun, Abdalla shwairef, Abdusalam Salem Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 10 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The International Geomagnetic Reference Field in Yemen at the Beginning of 2020 and The Secular Variations during the Period from 1900 to 2020 <p>The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is the best mathematical fit of the observed geomagnetic field at any specific time. It is adopted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). Due to the importance of this field for navigation, magnetic survey, geological mapping, military usage, local magnetic anomalies in the Earth's crust, surveying, and orientation in three dimensions. The IAGA evaluates and updates this field every five years to account for temporal field variations originating in Earth's core. The elements of the IGRF were determined for 1970 and the beginning of 2020 for the 171 sites in Yemen to compare and determine secular variations during this period. Also, the IGRF elements were determined for the centers of three cities; Aden, Sana’a and Sa'dah at the beginning of every five years from 1900 to the beginning of 2020 to study the secular variation during this period.</p> Ibrahim A. Al-Akhaly Al-Akhaly Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 12 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluating the quality characteristics for varieties of local and imported wheat used in the national mills for the production of bread flour and their conformity with the Libyan standard specifications. <p>This study was conducted on the local wheat variety (kufra), and three varieties&nbsp; imported from Russia, Ukraine and Germany to find out their conformity with the Libyan standard specifications used in the Libyan mills for the purpose of producing bread flour. Physiochemical tests showed variation in the levels of the thousand-grain and the specific weight. Chemical tests showed the domestic variation in&nbsp; the lipid content, ash, crushed starch and total water-soluble pentosans. Protein and wet gluten was high in the German and Ukrainian cultivars. Pearson correlation coefficient between the specific weight and the extraction ratio indicated the existence of a direct relationship and a strong positive correlation. Falling number showed a decrease in the activity of Alpha-amylase enzymes. Flour of German and Ukrainian varieties were superior to the time of maturity and stability of the paste. The physical tests on the bread indicated the superiority of the bread made from German and Ukrainian flour. Sensory tests confirmed that the flour of the German and Ukrainian variety met most of the conditions indicated in the Libyan standard for bread flour, as well as the local and Russian variety. The results of the study showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the bread loaf produced from German and Ukrainian wheat flour, but there were significant differences in the loaf of bread between the German and Ukrainian varieties on the one hand, and the local and Russian varieties.</p> Salah A. Alhebeil, Naji E. Aborus Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 13 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Theoretical and Spectroscopic Studies of SN Donor Thiosemicarbazone Ligand and Its Pt(II) Complex <p>Sulphur-nitrogen(SN) donor thiosemicarbazone ligand [(Z)-N-ethyl-2-(5-methyl-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide] and its Pt(II) complex were synthesized by condensation method. The compounds were structurally characterized by elemental analysis CHNS, FT-IR, and NMR analysis. The elemental analyses data for the compounds were in good agreement with the theoretical values.&nbsp; The melting point of the complex was higher than the ligand, as expected. The FT-IR spectral data reflect a bidentate bonding of thiosemicarbazone ligand to Pt(II) ion through thioketo sulfur and azomethine nitrogen. The docking results (theoretical results) of these compounds show that the binding energy between DNA and Pt(II) complex was found to be less than that of the Schiff base ligand (L) in the sense that it has higher stability at various stages and angles. The strength of docking between DNA and Pt(II) complex was also found to be that stronger than the Schiff base ligand (L).</p> Amna Qasem Ali, Boubaker Hosouna, Khadija Abdusslam Ahmida, Abdulasalam Amhamed Mohamed Alshreef Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Histological changes in female mice kidneys as a result of Valproic acid drug treatment <p>Valproic acid is a broad&nbsp; spectrum anti- convulsant drug,&nbsp; established as a long – term treatment for epilepsy and has toxic effect on kidney tissues. This study aimed to investigate the histological changes that may occur in the kidney in association with prolonged administration and overdose treatment of valproic acid. 35 albino mice were used, they were divided into four groups, group(I) included 5 animals and served as control group, group(II) included 10 animals and given progressive doses of valproic acid for ten weeks, starting with (15mg/kg/day) as minimum recommended dose and ending with (60mg/kg/day) as maximum recommended dose, group(III) included 10 animals and received an overdose (120mg/kg/day) for one week, group(IV) included 10 animals and treated exactly as group(II) then the animals were left for recovery for three weeks. The animals were sacrificed at the end of each period and the kidney tissue was excised. The drug induced many histological changes in kidney tissues, including inflammatory cellular infiltration, cell necrosis, cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, hemorrhage areas, oedema, and collagen deposition. The study concluded that valproic acid has multiple toxic effects on kidney tissues as far as the histological studies concerned and the effects were dependent on the dose and on the duration of treatment. Incomplete recovery was recorded after discontinuation of the drug.</p> Omelaz A. M. Elturshani, Khalida R. Al-Sarraj, Tarek A. Guseibat, El-nagi O. M. El-nagaz, Amal El-Tarhouni Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 18 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of Agricultural Extension on Rationalizing Irrigations Water at Alhania region- Elgabal Elakhadar - Libya <p>in rural area. Objectives of this Research were to : 1- Measurement the degree of knowledge, attitude and practice of traditional irrigation farmers and developed irrigation farmers related to rationalization methods of irrigation water usage and determine differences between them. Determine the most factors affecting to knowledge, attitudes and practices of traditional irrigation farmers and developed irrigation farmers about rationalizing methods of irrigation water usage.2-Identify farmer's information sources in irrigation.3-Determine the most important problems, which face traditional irrigation farmers and developed in the field irrigation. To achieve the objectives of the research, data were collected by personal inter from a sample of (210) farmers (130 developed irrigation farmers &amp; 80 traditional irrigation farmers). Data were collected through questionnaire with personal interview, for data analysis, percentages, averages standard&nbsp; deviation and" t" test were used to determine differences between averages of the respondents values, simple correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The main of the research revealed that : 1-There were significant differences between traditional and developed irrigation's farmers regarding knowledge attitudes and practices degree of rationalization methods of irrigation water usage.&nbsp; 2 -Knowledge of traditional irrigation and developed farmers about rationalization methods of irrigation water usage and factors affecting it.3-Practices of developed &amp; traditional irrigation's farmers to rationalization methods of irrigation water usage, and factors affecting it.4 -Attitudes of traditional irrigation developed farmers and towards rationalization methods of irrigation water usage.</p> Mageda Rizig Emragea, Mohammad. E. Ferkash Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 21 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0500