Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences <p>Journal of Pure &amp; Applied Sciences (JOPAS) is a part of Sebha university journals and published by Sebha University. JOPAS is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. JOPAS is committed to publish the latest research updates from scientists, researchers and students worldwide through one of the world’s best Open Journal Platforms. It publishes review article, regular article and short communication in all fields of pure and applied sciences. The different fields include but not limited to biological, natural and pure sciences. All articles will be peer reviewed with at least two blinded reviewers. Accepted manuscripts are published online as soon as the author approved the final proof. There are two volumes per year with unlimited numbers of articles. Accepted articles will be added to the current volume without any delay. Publishing with JOPAS is absolutely free in other words there will not be any handling, processing charges. </p> en-US <p>In a brief statement, the rights relate to the publication and distribution of research published in the journal of the University of Sebha where authors who have published their articles in the journal of the university of Sebha should how they can use or distribute their articles. They reserve all their rights to the published works, such as (but not limited to) the following rights:<br>- Copyright and other property rights related to the article, such as patent rights.<br>- Research published in the journal of the University of Sebha and used in its future works, including lectures and books, the right to reproduce articles for their own purposes, and the right to self-archive their articles.<br>- The right to enter a separate article, or for a non-exclusive distribution of their article with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in the journal of Sebha University.<br>Privacy Statement The names and e-mail addresses entered on the Sabha University Journal site will be used for the aforementioned purposes only and for which they were used.</p> (Dr. Mohamed Alamen Sharif) (Dr. Mohamed Erhayem) Mon, 13 Feb 2023 10:16:44 +0200 OJS 60 Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants against Some Bacteria Species and food spoilage bacteria <p>In the current study, some plants were selected to screen their potential antibacterial activity. For evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and organic solvents) methanol and acetone (were used. The tested plants were <em>Cymbopogon schoenanthus</em>, <em>Cotula cinerea</em>, and <em>Francoeuria crispa</em>. Agar well diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial activity against two Gram negative (<em>Brucella spp</em>., <em>Proteus spp</em>.) and three Gram positive (<em>Staphylococcus albus</em>, <em>Streptococcus spp</em>., <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>) bacterial species. All extracts were effective antibacterial agents, being capable of inhibiting the growth of each examined bacteria. Based on the findings of this study, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts of the leaves of <em>C. schoenanthus</em>, <em>C. cinerea </em>and <em>F. crispa</em> showed various antibacterial efficiency towards various bacterial species. Among plant extracts, the strongest antibacterial activity was shown by acetone extract of <em>F. crispa</em> against <em>Streptococcus spp</em>, with inhibition zone 27±1mm, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> with inhibition zone of 26.27±4mm, followed by methanol against<em> Streptococcus spp</em>, and <em>Brucella spp. </em>with inhibition zone of 24±1 mm, 22±1mm respectively. <em>Francoeuria crispa</em> extracts exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity towards each of the evaluated bacteria, followed by <em>Cymbopogon schoenanthus</em> and <em>Cotula cinerea</em>. In comparison, methanol and acetone extracts showed pronounced inhibitory activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These findings demonstrate that certain plants may have antibacterial properties. This study suggests the possibility of applying <em>Cymbopogon schoenanthus</em>, <em>Cotula cinerea</em>, and <em>Francoeuria crispa</em> leaves as natural sources of antibacterial and may provide clues to clarify potential candidates for the future development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of some infectious diseases.</p> Abdelgani Mohamed Abobaker, Fatimah Khalleefah Alqadeeri, Nadia Salem Alrawaiq, Khalleefah Almahdi Abdulsalam Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Mon, 01 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Methods of breaking seed physical dormancy and germination in native species of Alhagi graecorum Boiss (Al-Agool ) <p><em>Alhagi graecorum</em> is a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family and grows as wild perennial shrubby species. Seeds of this species possess seed physical dormancy and need to be removed to enhance germination, breaking of dormancy treatments were imposed on seeds to improve germination. Treatments include scarification with sulfuric acid ( H2SO4 ) for 10, 20, 30 and40 minutes. The results showed highly significant difference between control and all the treatments of germination percentage ( GP ) was 96%, 96%, 97% and 97%, respectively, while recorded in control only 12%. As for the mean daily germination ( MDG ), the results revealed that, there was a significant differences between all treated seeds and control, which was the fastest and most effective seeds germination on the third day of sowing were 84, 89, 90, 92 % respectively, while in control was 0 %. Mean germination time (MGT) decreased in all treated seed but statistically same while significantly different from the control. The minimum time was recorded for 20 and 30 minutes was 3.14 and 3.14 days respectively. </p> <p>We conclude from the results obtained that, the use of concentrated sulfuric acid 98% achieved the highest GP and MDG and the lowest MGT. This is the efficient method of breaking seeds dormancy and germination for native species of <em>Alhagi graecorum.</em></p> Omar Saad Sharashy Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Tue, 30 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The impact of unplanned construction and random expansion on the urban environment of the city of Sebha <p>Rapid urban growth in many developing countries has caused some social, economic, health and security problems that increase with the rise of urban growth rates, especially if it occurs away from physical planning fundamentals, regulations and standards. In many cities, areas of random expansion have emerged due to increasing population pressure, either through natural population growth or migration to cities in order to improve living conditions and good access to services and public facilities. These areas have had negative effects on urbanism, environment, society and economy. This paper attempts to shed light on the effects of random and unplanned urban expansion in the city of Sebha, where research is of great importance as it deals with a topic related to sound urban planning which aims to provide basic services, improve housing, environmental and health conditions for citizens, thus helping state institutions and organizations combat many of the problems associated with this phenomenon, identify the underlying factors behind it, ways to address it, reduce its exacerbation, and develop the necessary visions to prevent further emergence in the future. The study ended with a set of results and recommendations that may help decision makers contribute to solving this problem.</p> Ahmed M. A. Alhodairi, Mohamed Wali Abdulgader Al-Shareif Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Sun, 07 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Experimental Efficiency of Single Pass Solar Air Heater <p>The solar heat collector with the impingement of jet lower plate (SAHJF) experimentally designed and operated with typical parameters obtained from theoretical analysis to contained the maximum efficiency of the performance of thermal transfer. Then it was developed by replacing the flat absorber by the corrugated absorber (SAHJC) to enhance the efficiency. The flow rate of mass was selected equal and more than the typical value and the intensities of the solar radiation were chosen equal and less than the typical value to investigate the effect of both on the thermal transfer efficiency for SAHJF and SAHJC. Since the system works with a short range of temperature, the temperatures recorded were sensitive and needed a large accuracy. Therefore, an analysis method was proposed and applied to the data to be sure that it reflects the variance of temperature with different operating parameters. The correlation of temperature difference between the outlet and the inlet air with different flow rate and different intensities of irradiation for SAHJF and SAHJC was presented and compared.</p> alsanossi aboghrara, Mohamed Shukra Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Sun, 28 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 An Investigation into Material Handling Impact Factors on Performance Levels Within Libyan Service Organisations- A Case Study <p>This paper focuses on investigating the impacts of material handling (MH) on the performance factors within Libyan service organisations. The main objective of this paper is to ascertain the impacts of MH within Al-Khoms seaport for achieving better performance and generating invaluable efficiency and cost reduction. An analytical descriptive approach is used, and findings illustrate that the role of MH management for minimising the whole expenses within the targeted seaport is the key performance among all the investigated factors. Also, a positive correlation between MH and the organisation performance factors was clearly seen since MH reduces handling costs, organisation hazards and idle time for labors. Based on the findings, further research will be proposed for improving the processes of MH and effective decisions within organisations using simulation models.</p> Faraj Farhat Eldabee Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Thu, 09 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Ratio Predator-Prey Model with Random Initial Conditions <p>In this work, the predator-prey model with the ratio-dependent functional response is considered, where the randomness enters into the equations only through their initial conditions. It is done by assuming normal distribution as the initial states of the model to treat the randomness. The passage from the deterministic situation to the random one for these equations is also the most transparent. In addition, a numerical simulation will be offered using the modified approach founded on the fifth-order improved Runge-Kutta method. Furthermore, the stability of the equilibrium points, and certain statistical properties related to the random behaviour of predators and their prey, will be analyzed and discussed.</p> Almbrok Hussin Alsonosi Omar, Iman Aissa Alghannay Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Mon, 13 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0200 A bridgeless AC-DC step up regulator circuit for piezoelectric energy harvester <p>Various applications of the piezoelectric energy in the modern world require an efficient AC-DC low power converter. As the two stages converter with bridge rectifiers may not be used because the diodes would not be suitable for low volt ranging between 100 to 200mv, these are considered an efficient element in the low volt circuits because of their entire losses. In this paper, a small and efficient AC-DC low power converter is presented. It directly converts low AC voltage to the required output DC voltage using one stage instead of bridge rectification. The proposed converter combines both boost and buck boost converters which are parallel constructed to condition the positive and negative half cycle of the input AC volt respectively. Two inductors and one capacitor are used for booth circuits in terms of reducing the size. The circuit is tested at 50 kHz switching frequency with two different duty cycles to rectify a 0.5 AC volt to about 3 DC volts with an estimated efficiency of 65%. The simulation result was 3.7 DC V from 0.5 ACV. The circuit analysis and the design guide line are explained. The circuit is designed and tested using Matlab (Simulink) software.</p> Adel Issa Ben Issa, Salem Alarabi Shufat, Jamal Mohamed Ahmed, Hasan Abunouara Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Tue, 21 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0200 A simple & Rapid Method For Detecting Bacterial Myrosinase Corresponding Protein Band <p>Myrosinases have significant scientific and medical implications. Unfortunately, detection and purification of myrosinase from microbes requires the use of highly cost substrates (glucosinolates) such as sinigrin and expensive instruments such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography and or ion exchange chromatography. In this work, we used only 20 mL of bacterial culture supplemented with sinigrin (10 mM) to obtain partially purified myrosinase. The crude protein extract was loaded onto native polyacrylamide gel and putative myrosinase band was identified and eluted. This step successfully minimised the numbers of protein bands of bacterial crude extracts to be further analysed. The current method describes a simple, rapid and cost effective protocol for isolation and detection of active bacterial myrosinases. Furthermore, our method can be used as a purification step.</p> Abdulhadi Albaser, Vijitra Luang-IN, Numrah Nisar, Nurul Huda Abd Kadir, John T Rossiter Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Design of Rainwater Harvesting System in University Campus of Benghazi University, Libya <p>The city of Benghazi, like other Libyan cities, suffers from the shortage of renewable water sources. Otherwise, it was necessary to think about sources and technologies to inducement for the shortage of the water resources in Libya cities, such as adopting rainwater harvesting systems; This study aims to calculate the amounts of rainwater harvested from the roofs of buildings, roads, and squares of the university campus of Benghazi University using remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques, using of Google Earth and ArcGIS10.5 programs. In addition, studied the extent of the rainwater harvested quantity to coverage the human water consumption at the university campus; According to the study's results, the collected harvested rain water from the roofs of buildings, squares and roads in a year is 314789.58 m3, by three draining lines with a diameter of 200 mm, and slope from 0.002 to 0.009, so that the three lines meet a circular collection tank with a diameter of 27 m and depth of 3 m. At the end of this study, recommend that the administration of the University of Benghazi adopt the water harvesting system at the campus and provide its requirements for implementation, and to exploit the rainwater that It is harvested by creating gardens and lakes to add an aesthetic view of the university campus, also harvesting rainwater from the roofs of campus buildings facilities avoids the accumulation of ponds in it, so the structural elements are protected from moisture and its harmful effect.</p> Lubna s. Bentaher Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Sun, 21 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Effect of Display, Marketing and Processing on Histamine Concentration in Some Fish Species <p>The processes of manufacturing and canning fish products such as tuna, sardines and mackerel considered important food industries. They consumed in large quantities locally and internationally, due to their good nutritional components, in addition to the ease of preparation, but they may sometimes cause some cases of poisoning to the consumer such as cases of histamine poisoning, which is one of the most important risks and challenges facing manufacturers of canned and fresh fish products. In the first part, this study aims to determine the extent of the effect of processing steps on the concentration of histamine in fish products in samples of fresh sardines and mackerel in a local factory and their conformity with Libyan and international standards. The second part also included drawing random samples of fresh fish: tuna, sardines and mackerel from the fish market in the city of Tripoli during three periods: morning, noon and evening in order to study the relationship of the effect of the time displaying fish in the market and the concentration of histamine. The concentration of histamine in the samples was estimated using ELISA technology. The average concentration of histamine in fresh sardines samples during the manufacturing stages, namely the receiving stage, after washing, evisceration, cleaning and quick freezing at a temperature of -40 degrees Celsius was 3.39, 5.53, 8.56, 10.19, 12.11 mg/100g, respectively. As for the mackerel samples, the histamine concentration results were &lt;0.02, 0.34, 0.14, 0.63, and 3.05 mg/100g during those stages, respectively. It found that there were significant differences at 5% probability level between the two stages of receiving and the final product. As for the results of fresh fish samples from the fish market, which are tuna, sardines and mackerel during the three periods. it was found that the concentration of histamine increased, especially in the evening period, and there were significant differences between them, which indicates that the processing of fish and the increase in the supply period have a role in increasing the concentration of histamine. Therefore, it is very necessary paying attention to hygiene operations, reducing supply and processing periods, and using Food Safety Management Systems in factories and fish markets.</p> Ahmeda Algarari Alzagtat Alzagtat, Hager Omar Atomi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Mon, 01 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Review: Electrochemical biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures <p>In the last few decades’ electrochemical biosensors have witnessed vast developments due to the broad range of different applications, including health care and medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and assessment, food industry, and drug delivery. Integration of nanostructured material with different disciplines and expertise of electrochemistry, solid-state physics, material science, and biology has offered the opportunity of a future generation of highly rapid, sensitive, stable, selective, and novel electrochemical biosensor devices.</p> <p>Among metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO nanostructures are one of the most important nanomaterials in today’s nanotechnology research. Such nanostructures have been studied intensely not only for their extraordinary structural, optical, and electronic properties but also for their prominent performance in diverse novel applications such as photonics, optics, electronics, drug delivery, cancer treatment, bio-imaging, etc. However, functionality of these nanomaterials is eventually dictated by the capability to govern their properties including shape, size, position, and crystalline structure on the nanosized scale.</p> <p>This review aims to update the outstanding advancement in the developments of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic biosensors using a different structure of ZnO nanomaterials. After a coverage of the basic principles of electrochemical biosensors, we highlight the basic features of ZnO as a potential anticancer agent. focused attention gives to functionalized biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures for detecting biological analytes, such as glucose, cholesterol, L-lactic acid, uric acid, metal ions, and pH.</p> M. Akhwater Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences Wed, 17 May 2023 00:00:00 +0200