Date palm service, care and harvest
Prepared by Dr. Abu Al-Qasim Amer Al-Saidi - a faculty member at Sebha University
The date palm is one of the most important trees in the palm tree family Palmaceae and gender Phoenix and type Dactylifera and scientific name Phoenix dactylifera It is believed that its original homeland Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula, and the palm tree dwelling, planted in many parts of the globe, and agriculture is almost exclusively between the latitudes 10:35 north and Libya production Of the dates are about 165 thousand tons annually, and the total global production amounted to about 7462.51 thousand tons, and Libya occupies the tenth rank of global production and the number of trees is approximately 8 million trees.
The palm tree is a blessed tree and God Almighty has loved the land of the Arabs in it, and its fruits are distinguished by being eaten soft and half-ripe like wet and full-ripe like fruit and dates can be stored without trouble and the palm can withstand a high degree of heat as it resists the moderate cold and tolerates thirst and flourishes with water and exists in it and wishes many countries The world is that this tree should be one of the trees that exist in its lands, and the palm tree does not need to be defined in terms of its value and importance, as it is considered one of the oldest trees known to man, centuries have passed and successive generations, civilizations and the palm tree are still flourishing with their production, shape and beauty, especially in our Arab world Which includes more than 70% of the number of palm trees and the production of dates in the world, and the palm tree suffered a lot of neglect, as this was reflected in the deterioration of its production and the low quality of its fruits.
The palm tree gained a special economic and social position and was strengthened by what the divine holy books contained in it. It is a blessed tree mentioned in the Holy Quran in more than 23 places, and in many noble hadiths, and many poets praised it.
Nutritional value of dates: Dates contain many of the most important nutrients.
Carbohydrates, sugar, dietary fiber, protein, total protein, water, fat, minerals and salts, vitamins.
First: pollination (Tuber).
The palm tree is bi-inhabited and mono-sex, meaning that there is a male tree and another tree provided, and the farmer must transfer the pollen manually or mechanically from the male tree to the female tree, as it requires follow-up to the pollination process at least 3 times because the process of opening the objects does not It takes place at one time, but lasts about 2-3 weeks. Usually, the pollination season lasts for one and a half months, i.e. from the beginning of March to mid-April, depending on the varieties, where there are early ripening and medium and late third varieties.
Pruning takes place once a year, but its timing varies from region to region, but this does not exceed three dates, namely:
- After collecting the fruits in the fall.
- At the beginning of spring with pollination.
- With the process of reflection or curving at the beginning of the summer.
- Cut dry fronds.
Getting rid of dry fronds, which are useless for their survival, especially if they have crustaceans, where they are collected and burned, and the old fronds also cause obstruction of the services of the palm tree head.
- Remove the thorns and the remains of losers.
Removing thorns from fronds is necessary to perform the various tasks of Ras Al-Nakhla service (pollination - thinning - reflection - gagging - harvesting the crop). This process takes place when the pollination process is carried out.
- The process of distillation.
It is intended to remove the dry rules of the fronds that already Tkulaimh with the removal of the fiber which is punctuated by this process and conducts winter, or synchronized with the pruning process, and aims to.
- Get rid of the bases of dried fronds (anguish) and the existing fibers so that they are not shelter for piercing insects that may afflict tree trunks.
- Disarmament of anguish and fiber between them and to take advantage of it in various industries such as ropes, etc., or a source of energy.
- Removing the structures that may grow on the trunk of the palm tree.
- Making the trunk of the palm tree in a way that makes it easier for the farmer to elevate the palm tree and reach its top for various agricultural operations.
Third: Reflection (curving).
It is intended to pull the towers from among the fronds, to reflect them, and to distribute them on the palm regularly before the fortresses harden. Because the more lameens increase in growth, the greater the weight, the longer its history extends and intertwines with the fronds. The purpose of the reflex is: -
Reflecting or bending laires
1- The possibility of reaping the fruits easily.
2- Preserve the fortune-tellers from breakage in case of many fruits.
3- Balancing the weight of fortune takers around the head of the palm tree.
4- Putting everyone in one ring.
- Fruit thinning is performed during the uniqueness process.
- It cleans the palm of the dry fruits and eradicates the remains of the Lions
It is the process of wrapping the whole lions and tying them from the top about a month before reaping the fruits. When the fruits are ripe, the lame is cut completely with the covers, and its purpose is: -
- Preserving the fruits from falling to the ground and contaminating the soil
2- Reducing the manpower at harvest to pick up the falling dates.
- Save the fruits from the wasps, birds and insects damage.
- Helps speed the harvest and preserve the fruits.
Picture of a typical field in all agricultural operations and in the quantization of laires
Fourth: Pest and disease resistance.
Date palm attacks many diseases and pests, some of which have an effect on leaves (fronds and germs) and some of them infect fruits at different stages. Among the most important and common of these diseases and pests are
- Dream (Ghobash), which are spiders that infect fruits in early stages, if the injury on a single tree becomes worse for any reason that may completely destroy the crop.
The dream ((Ghobash))
- White cortical insect: It is endemic to the area for a long time, mainly affecting the leaves, if the infection intensifies, it affects the quantity and quality of production.
- Green Cortical Insect: It appeared recently in some areas, a very dangerous insect that directly affects production and quality. If the injury intensifies, it leads to the death of the tree, which is very aggressive and moves between trees inside and outside the farm.
- Red palm weevil: It is one of the most dangerous insects that infect the palm. Therefore, it was called me (palm aids), which is transboundary, that is, it is transmitted from one farm to another and from one region to another and from one country to another and it is highly mobile, highly infectious that affects trees and shrubs alike. Usually it is not detected early because it lives and feeds and lays its eggs inside the palm tree stump, so it destroys and destroys the palm in a period of 6 - 12 months from the beginning of the injury.
Fifth: Harvest (yield harvest) , filling and staging.
The process of picking dates or harvesting the crop is the final stage in the process, and determining the appropriate degree of fruit harvesting is one of the important factors that depend on the quality of the fruits and the ability to market them.
Dagalat Nour dates are packed in special packages ready for marketing