Journal of Human Sciences https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs <p style="text-align: justify;">A scientific journal published by the University of Sabha twice a year. It is concerned with publishing original scientific research and studies in the field of human sciences, which have not been previously published or presented at a scientific conference. Scientific research is accepted in Arabic, English, French, and African languages. The paper will be published on the current issue. Once the evaluation process is completed, the evaluation process will be conducted in strict confidentiality by two arbitrators. The scientific papers published by the journal do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the journal. The date of the first publication in 1994 AD.</p> Sebha University en-US Journal of Human Sciences 2708-8359 <h4>Plagiarism policy</h4> <p>Sebha University Journal respects intellectual property and aims to protect the original work of authors applying for publication. In general, the laws of the magazine are inconsistent with scientific articles that contain stolen materials and are not bound by the standards of quality, research and innovation. Applicants for publication to the journal must adhere to ethical standards and refrain from plagiarism in any way. In the event that any plagiarism or scientific theft of an article submitted for publication is found, the journal will contact the author to provide their interpretation within two weeks of its date, after which it will be referred to the relevant committees formed for this purpose to take strict measures. about that. In general, the journal’s license allows the citation of the content published on its website and the download of all files.</p> Fezzan Commerce across the Sahara, in Classical ear https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1548 <p>Germa (Jarma) occupied an excellent position, which could be a link between the north and south of the continent, and with Egypt, as it was a center for the reception and distribution of Mediterranean and African products. This is what the archaeological missions and exploratory projects, whether Italian or English have made clear, and they showed the contradiction and the great error, in which the classic sources fell, when they described the Garamantes, as the barbarian people, who have no civilization and do not accept the other, and his image is an enemy of the Mediterranean civilization. But these archaeological missions, and clarified the extent of civilization progress that the capital enjoyed, and how it adapted in the middle of the desert, and produced a pure Libyan civilization, which was in contact with the surrounding civilizations, whether in the north, south or east.</p> Alshareef Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 230 237 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1548 Kingdom of Germa and its position on the Roman and Byzantine armies https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1547 <p>The military interventions and the imposition of power by the romans and after them the Byzantines created between them and the kingdom of Gramma in the Libyan south, as was evident through the secrets of the romans and their byzantine inherited. Followed them to try to extend their infiuence over the areas of the desert caravan routes linking the south with Africa, the Libyan coast and the Mediterranean countries. This paper is trying to shed light on the relations between the kingdom of Germma and its relationship with the roman and byzantine</p> Saeed Mohammed Gredah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 219 229 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1547 The dialect of the people of Fezzan and its relationship to classical Arabic: a study of the linguistic features of the Libyan identity https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1546 <p>The dialect of Fezzan, is one of the Arabic dialects that is taught in language books, due to the importance of this dialect in the Arab heritage , so I thought about writing about it in my research and highlighting itsrelatio-nship to the classical Arabic language with the various phonological and semantic phenomena in it. This research sheds light on one of the dialects of the three regions of Libya, which is the dialect of the Fezzan region and its relationship to cla_ ssical Arabic, by deducing linguistic terms and expressions, in an attempt to draw attention to the fact that the dialect is a feature of the distinct Lib yan identity, and an aspect of national unity in Libya Despite the difficulties that the research faced, including the scarcity of historical and linguistic sources that wrote about this dialect.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ali Ayad Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 210 218 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1546 Libyan position from the French military presence in the state of Fezzan 1951 – 195 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1545 <p>Service facilities in Fezzan during the study stage are somewhat advanced in all fields, and this research paper aims to shed light on some of them and how they develop and their impact on society. Which dealt with education after independence, as well as the development in the education sector, vocational education, and social and recreational activities, As for the second axis, it studied the development of health services and their impact on society, as it was exposed to the health situation after independence, and how it developed later, and the curative services that were provided. And its impact on the lives of the population, and this research paper also contained a conclusion that included the most important findings of the researcher.</p> Sinussi Akila Ahmed Alghime Ali Abdussalam Abdulla Khalifa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 198 209 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1545 Germanic worship and funerary rituals and the influence and influence of neighboring religions https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1543 <p>This research paper deals with the study of deities and criminal funerary arc and the influence and influence of neighboring religions in it, in the time period from the beginning of the dawn of history until the end of Roman control over North Africa in the year 455 AD and the beginning of the Vandal control over it in the geographical borders of the Kingdom of Garment, which extends north to the Gulf of Sirt And towards the southeast to the Nile Valley desert and to the west and northwest, it includes Ghadames and Ghat to the areas.</p> Omran Ahmed Hussein Al-Sharif Al-Sharif Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 187 197 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1543 Fazan is a link on Moroccan pilgrimages routes Between Abn Melih and Albertli's journeys https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1540 <p>This work deals with the role of Fazan in the service of the Moroccan Hajj, and follows this role over a period of more than 150 years through two Journeies that have covered the geographical area of Fazan, each providing us with details about the visited areas and the conditions surrounding the pilgrims' convoys as they move between the stations of Fazan countries. It Besides, provided us with important information about the geography and physical centers of the roads and provided us with images of the welcome of the residents around the roads to the pilgrims of Mecca, which gave us a living testimony of love and respect between the newcomers and the resident. The first journey of Aben Malih al- Qaisi who went out of the city of Marrakesh in 1040-1042 H/ 1630-1633M, and without his trip under the name Anas al-Sari and al-Sareb, and after than century and a half the Journey of Hajj al-Bashir al-Narthli, who left his city in 1204-1205 H/ 1789-1790M, this trip was revealed by researchers in the past decade to give us welcome opportunity to study Fazan countries and their role in the Moroccan pilgrim's trips.</p> Rabea Ahmed Elmedah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 164 173 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1540 Reading in an Ottoman document on Fezzan and the kingdoms of the desert https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1541 <p>The lack of translation from the Ottoman language created a ‎knowledge ‎vacuum for a significant period in the history of Libya, as a ‎result of the ‎lack of translation work due to the difficulty of translating ‎from Ottoman ‎documents, and the lack of dealing with their texts due to ‎the absence of ‎translation. Fezzan region and the southern ‎desert regions from ‎(Borno_Kanem_‎ ‎‎‎‎‎Sokoto_‎ Aqdaz‎_‎ ‎‎ Timbuktu_wadai_Ghat_Ghadames) r‎egio‎ns have a history, ‎deserve ‎a lot of research and study. This research is a translation of a document related to Fezzan ‎‎region in the second Ottoman era, which was published in ‎‎documents related to the history of Sudan in the Ottoman era, perhaps ‎‎including some information that would benefit specialists in the ‎ ‎history of ‎Libya.</p> Abdullah Ali ‏ Nouh Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 174 186 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1541 View of Britain through its consul and the Ottoman Empire from the French moves in the Sahara (1850-1881 AD) https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1521 <p>This This study has revealed the aspirations of some of the colonizing countries like Britain and France, and their attempts to control the middle of African continent, and making the state of western Tripoli as a spreading point towards the rest of the neighbouring areas being attributed to its political, and economical importance. As a consequence, Britain appointed Warrington as its consul in the state of western Tripoli who was careful and paid attention to the French activities in the Sahara. So he employed co-consuls on the trade roads in Mursik and Ghadamis. On the other hand, we found that France also worked to keep its influence in the country. It recruited Russo, as a consul in the state of western Tripoli who, since his arrival to the state, has worked to strength his influence to protect the status and presence of France in the state. This has led to a massive competition between the two consulates of France and Britain. The consuls’ influence strongly and noticeably increased in the state. Afterwards, when the Ottoman Empire uncovered the political conflict between the two mentioned countries, and the attempts of each of them to take a standing ground in the north of Africa, besides the disorder of the political, economical and social considerations in the country, this urged them to directly rule the country again in 1835, in fear of the country fall in colonization.</p> Ali Ahmed Ali Aldoumani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 153 163 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1521 Aspects Of Travel Literature In The Desert Domain Alwargilani Trip As A Model https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1520 <p>This research paper deals with aspects of travel writing in desert area through</p> <p>Alwarjalany pilgrimage a cross Fezzan region, which took place during the second half of the&nbsp; 6th century migration/ the 12th century. The paper also seeks to study a new type of travel writing which differs from typical travel texts in terms of its form and style of writing. Additionally, the blogger of this travel had built a travel text in which all the elements of travel writing exist. Since Alwarjalany trip is a model of this type, the current study has traced its route and the way it had been recorded, by highlighting some of its writing features as well as the challenges and the dangers which encountered pilgrims who had joined the trip.</p> Rajah Fadheel Alghanay Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 143 152 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1520 The City of Murzuq and its role in the desert transit trade during the Nineteenth Century https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1511 <p>This study aims to shed light on the city of Murzuq in the Fezzan region during the nineteenth century, and its important role in the desert transit trade, as the city of Murzuq, by virtue of its geographical location, was of great importance in its spirit as a pivotal city in the intra-trade between northern Libya and the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It was in the middle of the Libyan desert, and its important location on the desert road that passes through it from Tripoli to the Kingdom of Yarno and the Central Sudan. This study deals with the city of Murzuq and its pivotal role in the commercial desert caravan trade in the Fezzan region, and how Murzuq turned into a bustling and prosperous city with trade in the nineteenth century thanks to the desert caravan trade, and thanks to the city's important location in the middle of the Libyan desert. One of the reasons for the researcher's choice of this topic is that the desert transit trade through Murzuq is what made the city of economic and political importance more than anything else, and therefore the researcher believes that the city of Murzuq and its economic importance in the nineteenth century did not give rise to its abundant right of study and analysis, and accordingly the researcher will use The historical, narrative and analytical approach in its study.</p> Abu Bakr salem Al Mahdi Al Shaibani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 127 142 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1511 Historical study of trade exchange between the Germans and the Three Cities during the Phoenician (Carthaginian) and Roman eras 500 B.C-235 AD https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1510 <p>The Phoenicians knew the Libyan coast during the time they went and returned from the western Mediterranean for the purpose of trade and bringing the mineral materials required for their advanced industry and by passing by and mooring an it they knew the strategic importance of this coast, which represents the main gateway for goods because&nbsp; it is located at the shortest land roads leading south to south to south of the Libyan desert&nbsp; they decided to set up commercial stations on it to rest and to supply water and supplies from long trips and to obtain raw materials from areas beyond the desert that are required in the regions of the ancient world through the jeremiah tribe that interacted&nbsp; and dealt with them as the important criminal kingdom site had a major role in playing a role mediation in trade exchange between central Africa and the three cities since the Phoenician era which continued until it reached its climax in the Roman rea after the Romans controlled it the desire of this study was to compare trade exchange between the Germans and the three cities in the Phoenician and Roman eras, and the period of study extends from the year 500 B C to the year 235 A D, the end of the rule of the Severian, dynasty, This study aims to know the impor tance of the geographical location of the criminal kingdom and the three cities and its role in the success of the trade exchange between them, and to know the trade policy that the criminals followed with the Phoenicians, as well as the Romans, controlling thethe three cities, and what types of commercial good were exported and imported between the Phoenician era? Was there a change in the types of these exchanged commercial goods during the Roman era? And did the Romans continue to use the previous trade routes or did they establish new ways to reach the criminal kingdom? What are the most important means of transport afion used in the Roman era, and its impact on increasing commercial activity between the two parties highlighting the role of commercial activity in the economic and architectural development on both sides, and whether it had mutual effects on both parties? Whether during the period of their trade velations with the Phoenicians, or the Romans who controlled the three cities later.</p> Ayyad Mustafa Aabileka Abdel Karim Ali Namo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 119 126 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1510 The development of service facilities in Fezzan and their impact on society during the monarchy 1952 – 1969 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1508 <p>Service facilities in Fezzan during the study stage are somewhat advanced in all fields, and this research paper aims to shed light on some of them and how they develop and their impact on society. Which dealt with education after independence, as well as the development in the education sector, vocational education, and social and recreational activities, As for the second axis, it studied the development of health services and their impact on society, as it was exposed to the health situation after independence, and how it developed later, and the curative services that were provided. And its impact on the lives of the population, and this research paper also contained a conclusion that included the most important findings of the researcher</p> Salem Amar Aljhedry Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 107 118 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1508 Political relations of the Karamanli family with Fezzan and the sub-Saharan regions during the reign of Yuesf Pasha 1795 – 1832 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1505 <p>The The Karamanions ruled the governorate of Tripoli for a period of 124 years, which was full of family struggles in order to gain power. On the other hand, revolutions were relentless to get rid of the oppression of rulers, and the main factor that helped this family to reach power was the political and economic decline of the Ottoman Empire, which led Due to the decline of its political and military capabilities, and thus it was no longer able to influence the political events in the Ayala, it found in front of it only acceptance of the fait accompli, which is recognition of the Karamanli rule in exchange for loyalty to the state and the Sultan, in addition to all these matters contributed to the arrival of this family to power, and thus the Ottoman rule ended Direct Scrolling.</p> <p>The rulers of this family tried to establish their rule almost independently of the central authority, and to regulate their financial, judicial and military affairs, relying on the ideological social class that owes their allegiance to them in establishing the foundations of power through its formation of the main force in the army.</p> <p>The study Problem:</p> <p>This research represents an analytical study that aims to focus on the main and important aspects of the political role of the Karamanli family in the province of western Tripoli. Which necessitated his research and discussion to be clear to the eye by answering many questions related to this topic, and thus leads the researcher to answer them, and thus the problem of this study appears about the following main question:</p> <p>What is the political role of the Karamanli family in the province of western Tripoli, with Fezzan and the regions beyond the desert during the reign of Yusuf Pasha in the period from 1795/1832 AD</p> <p>&nbsp;Thus, this study attempted to answer several questions, including:</p> <p>1- How was the relationship of the state of Tripoli with Fezzan in the era of the Karamanli family during the rule of Yusuf Pasha?</p> <p>2- How was the relationship of the state of Tripoli with the regions beyond the desert during the reign of the Karamanli family during the rule of Yusuf Pasha?</p> <p>Study Value:</p> <p>This study deals with the political relations of the Karamanli family, with Fezzan and the regions beyond the Sahara during the reign of Yusuf Pasha ((1795 AD 1832 AD)).</p> <p>That family that ruled the governorate of western Tripoli, or what is called Libya at the present time As well as studying this historical period of great importance because it provides us with a clear picture of the history of the political relations of the Karamanli family with Fezzan and the regions beyond the desert during the reign of Yusuf Pasha in that historical period, which we can define its beginning in the year 1795 AD and also its end in the year 1832 AD, which is the year Which ended the rule of Yusef Pasha.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>&nbsp;It was a result of the political relations of the Karamanli family with the Fezzan and the regions beyond the Sahara</p> <ol> <li class="show">Subjugation of the areas of the south and the right to direct administration in the province of western Tripoli.</li> <li class="show">Ghadames was subjugated in 1810 AD, which crossed the trade gateway to western Sudan, and the meeting place for commercial caravans coming from Tunisia and Algeria.</li> <li class="show">Yusef Pasha was subjected to Fezzan after Ghadames, where his intervention came in the year 1811 AD. 1812 AD.</li> </ol> <p>4. The fall of the state of the children of Muhammad at the hands of Muhammad al-Makni, who attacked the last sultans of the state of the children of Muhammad called Muhammad al-Nasser, who took over Fezzan in 1804 AD.</p> Ali Saad Masoud Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 95 106 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1505 The Libyan city of Ghat among the French ambitions And Ottoman control 1861-1900 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1504 <p>Ghat, as well as the Ottoman Empire’s attempt to control it. France wanted to control the city for a long period of time, during its many attempts to communicate with the sheikhs and leaders in the city, and to conclude agreements and treaties with them as well as the Ottoman state. It is trying to impose control over the city and many cities in the Libyan south in order to secure the Libyan borders, especially after it sensed the danger from France when it occupied Algeria and thus became near it. Therefore, the Ottoman Empire sought to impose control over the city of Ghat, as the researcher touched upon the main factors that led To this competition for control of the city, the researcher also deals with the role of the French travelers in order to impose that control, especially the role of the traveler Henri Dvira. The research also deals with the political situation of the city of Ghat after it was subject to Ottoman control.</p> Ahmed Rajab Farag Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 84 94 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1504 Description of Fezzan through the books of Muslim travelers and geographers (From the third century AH to the seventh century AH) https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1503 <p>The One of the most important difficulties that a researcher faces in studying the history of Fezzan is the lack of resources and material that help him to move forward in his research, as undoubtedly the researcher driving by the material that he has to carry out his job. &nbsp;Perhaps the most prominent thing that we notice when researching the history of the medieval Fezzan and its scarcity is the lack of information compared to other regions and neighboring in Egypt and the Islamic Maghreb, which have had many books that trace their history. On the other hand, Fezzan was mentioned and described in the books of Muslim travelers and geographers, and their writings. This represented a source of geographical and historical information through their transmission of their own observations or through their transmission from others who mentioned Fezzan before them. In fact most of these writings are much later than the stages that the region went through, such as the Arab conquest. The details of travelers and geographers wrote about Fezzan was written in late historical eras and conveyed to us sporadic, fluctuating and repeated sometimes. These information about Fezzan in particular and Libya in general, might not enough to write a solid study about Fezzan in the Islamic era. Perhaps the absence of independent states in the Fezzan region in particular and in Libya in general, similar to what happened in the rest of the Islamic Maghreb countries, is a reason for the reluctance of historians to write about Fezzan. Moreover, the location of Fezzan in the middle of desert with a small population may make a great influence on its history, even though Fezzan has played for many centuries as a linkage between North and South. The history of Fezzan is scattered in the folds of books, the collection and coordinate the history of Fezzan from these resources become very important it matter to fill this gap in Fezzan and Libya history.</p> Mabrouka Hasan Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 73 83 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1503 Oases and commercial caravan stations in the Fezzan region from the introduction of Islam to it in the first century AH / seventh century until the beginning of the sixteenth century AD https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1502 <p>The Fezzan site in the Libyan desert represented an important center and link between the different regions that have to pass through it to reach each other, such as the eastern regions in Egypt and northern Africa, which are continuing with Europe and the central and western African continent, and despite the harshness of the desert, the desert oases acted as a coolant to the atmosphere and to enhance the communication process For convoys passing through them to all parts of the continent, where they formed a safe haven, which earned the continent an important place in the process of connecting all its destinations. North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa are two economically complementary regions, and the Libyan oases - such as: Awjila, Gallo, Kufra, Murzuq, Ghat, Ghadames ... and others - played an important role in the communication process and in stimulating trade exchange. What interests us here is the study of oases located within the Fezzan region and their taking the role of commercial terminals for caravans crossing the Sahara, thanks to which the cities in their path and within the region itself developed. Traveler's books and historical sources talk about the existence of economic relations between the northern regions of the continent and central Africa in the period of the Islamic era, which was a direct reason for its prosperity after the conquest of Egypt and North Africa. The roads through Fezzan were the main routes for the delivery of Sudanese goods, most notably slaves, towards North Africa and Egypt</p> Maryam Askier Abdeslam Almaghtowf Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 61 72 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1502 The Islamic conquest of Fezzan From the year Hegira 22 / AD 642 until Hegira 64 / AD 684 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1501 <p>The Islam succeeded in this period of history in penetrating into the African continent, in which the Islamic armies had a great role through the Islamic conquests, the caravan trade and the missionary trips for this religion, in addition to the method of dealing with Muslims with the people of the open countries in what was stipulated by the Islamic Sharia. The people and their acceptance of this religion, the region of Fezzan, which the Muslims took as a base for spreading Islam into Africa, and the conquests reached from Zuwaila to the Palace of Khawar or Kawar in Niger, and thus the open country expanded to include most of Africa. They succeeded in the Islamic conquest more than once for these areas, given that these areas quickly turn away from Islam once the Islamic army returns to Egypt, along with the desert site of Fezzan, and the absence of military garrisons to block the attacks of the Romans.</p> Latifa Omar Ahessin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 53 60 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1501 The cultural relationship between Fezzan and Tripoli and Cyrenaica during the Islamic ear https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1500 <p>The residents of fzan were interested in cultural life, such as the Libyan territories since lslam and its spread between them they welcomed this religion they accepted the knowledge of his teachings which call for science in most of its verses he became all coming to this religion is willing to learn his science which is Arabic which was the impact on the emergence of a group of scientists in all Libyan regions they have scientific and religious relations that had a role in achieving the cultural among the Libyan regions, the Arabic language has become the official language in Libya since lslam entered into our time it is the language of culture to be the language of religion we do not forget the geographical for Libya, which made it a crossing and stable for many scientists this was causes of cultural growth in Libya this is what l will try to clarify it in this research</p> Dalal Moftah Alfitouri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 48 52 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1500 Social relations between The fazzan region and it, s residence in Tripoli and berga in the Islamic ea https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1496 <p>The Fezzan region has an important geographical location that contributed to spread of Islam in the surrounding African regions and aspects. It is a rural community and the people of this region have a desert character. Nevertheless, it did not prevent people to settling in it. Where there are mountains, valleys and oases, and the city of&nbsp; Zuweila&nbsp; ,was the capital of the region ,Fezzan in the Islamic era ,and zuwayla developed the bani al-khattab who owned Fezzan from the beginning of the fourth century ah to the year 306 ad they are distinguished by their own social habits in holding feasts, weddings and funerals , which do not differ much from the social customs in the rest of the regions. They are distinguished by their own social habits in holding feasts, weddings .and funerals, which are not different from the social habits in other regions Therefore, I dealt with in this research showing the aspects of social life in the Libyan regions of Fezzan, Tripoly and Barga. During the Islamic judgement and the relation between them, through the study of social classes, habits and traditions for each region, especially since all regions speak Arabic with the exception of a few of them speaking in addition to the Arabic language, the Berber and Tuareg language. This is addition to knowing what each region characterized to reflect the aspects of social life in it and to know the extent of .interconnection, agreement and difference in the regions And my goal of this study was to know the habits and traditions that reflect the reality of social life within the Libyan regions, especially since the social relationship between the .Libyan regions was linked to each other during the Islamic judgement The importance and the reason for choosing the studying lies in standing and highlighting the social history of libya and showing the extent of cohesion and interconnection between the members of its regions, especially since most of the studies were concerned with political and economic aspects and only a small aspect was shown about life, which is considered one of .the vital topics, so I highlighted it I followed a historical narrative method and analysing the information to arrive at results .that benefit the research.</p> Hanan Ibrahim mohamed Kahoul alwerfaliy alwerfaliy Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 40 47 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1496 The scientific technology of irrigation systems in old Fezzan(Faggarat). https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1495 <p>The The Fezzan region is located in southwestern Libyae, and its location was a direct reason for making its history and civilization and making it a natural geographic link between the Mediterranean civilizations in the north and the desert cultures in the south. Ascientific technique known as the fugarat system(vertebrates) this&nbsp; has been&nbsp; culturally reflected&nbsp; on&nbsp; the successive&nbsp; agricultural development that the region witnessed in the past which made the Fezzan region go through a phenomenon associated with it represented in the continuous&nbsp; human migrations since ancient times until the presenttime, and this communication for med a cultural, cultural and social blend and fusion of these human components for ming one of the basic elements of the character of the Libyan desert in general, and the Fezzan desert&nbsp; in particular, this has been culturally reflected in the successive agricultural derelopment in the Fezzan region, through the interest in agricultural lands by providing advanced irrigation systems that may still exist until the present time, making these areas ameeting point for human migrations and staility in them despite the desert conditions.&nbsp; In addition to that, the region was located on the shortest roads linking the Mediterranean and central Africa, which made its influence and influence, inevitable, and this means that the Sahara and the coast were included together by a single cultural&nbsp; unit that extended from the southern&nbsp; shore of the heart of the desert, which reflects the region and its develop pment through its different ages. Fajarat is a unique irrigation system and a scientific method that consists in drawing water from the ground and distributing it through channels dug underground to evaporate it as a result of the high desert heat, which led to the existence of agricultural oases in the Fezzan vallegs that, over time, became markets, commercial and desert caravan stations. Modern archaeological evidence has confirmed the existence of Fezzan , suchas wadi Al- Ajal, wadi Al-shati, and other , which contributed to a wide agricultural renaissance in these areas. And we will talk, with the help of god, in this research about the scientific technology of irrigation systems in Fezzan(the Fugarat system).</p> Al-Tawfiq Masoud Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 31 39 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1495 The Italian occupation of Fezzan and the role of national leaders in confronting the occupation 1913 –1914 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1493 <p>The current study aims to show a part of Libyan local history, specifically the first Italian occupation of Fezzan in 1913. It's most important pillars and circumstances and&nbsp; the role of popular resistance in addressing it. This study also focuses on the most important tribal figures who fought colonialism, and follows the stages of the emergence of the idea of leadership, and leadership in the war following the signing of the O'Shea Lausanne Convention 1912. And some aspects of the leadership conflict that took place in that period between the resistance and non-resistance Supporters. As well as this paper contained in some detail&nbsp; in the names of the most important tribes and&nbsp; their leader in Fezzan and their great success in sparing the region leadership disputes over leadership such as that occurred in the western region Tripoli and Nafusa&nbsp; Mountains, and their success in expelling Italian colonialism from Fezzan during the period 1914 – 1924.</p> Salah M. Ejbara Ali A. Ishteewi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 23 30 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1493 French Politics Trends in the Fezzan 1943/1951 https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1492 <p>This study deals with the French policy in the Fezzan region after the Second World War, and the Fezzan region is considered one of the important areas that France has sought to control since the nineteenth century. The region has isolated the region from other Libyan regions and part of it from it, and travel permits have been imposed on every citizen leaving or entering the region, in addition to imposing a special currency in the region, and when the war ended and in the midst of international changes that prevailed in the world after that, France entered into conflict with the major countries And the United Nations in an attempt to remain in the region, but the national elites fought for the independence of Libya and the unity of its regions and succeeded in that.</p> Salem Alsagheer Amhimmid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 15 22 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1492 Jolaye oasis (Abunjem) as a connecting place between Fezzan district and the cities of the Libyan western coast during the Roman era https://sebhau.edu.ly/journal/index.php/johs/article/view/1489 <p>JOLAYE (AbuNjem) oasis is one of the oldest&nbsp; human&nbsp; settlements in Libya since the prehistoric era , stone tools were found it dated the ancient stone era and the modern stone era. JOLAYE oasis is located on boarders of Fizzan district in the north and&nbsp; locates in the middle zone in the southern sides in the desert&nbsp; area in the middle of Libya in the depression of&nbsp; Wadi Bai Elkhaeb , this strategic important location made it as a connetion between Fizzan and the western coast of Libya since the ancient era and is considered a suitable place for the rest of the commercial caravans&nbsp; and travellers. And the Roman campaign that entered JERMA the capital of Fizzan has started from it, as result of the importance of the strategic location of the oasis on the road of the desert caravans going to Fizzan. This district&nbsp; has an important&nbsp; role in the age of Romans as it is one of the boarded&nbsp; positions on the desert as they stayed in&nbsp; it on 201 AD by building a fortress&nbsp; in&nbsp; this&nbsp; location that was called JOLAY and it is one of the mos t important&nbsp; fortress that were established on of the sides of the desert during the Roman era.</p> Abdelhafid A. Abulamusha Abulamusha Wafa S. Rizeq Allah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Human Sciences 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 20 3 1 14 10.51984/johs.v20i3.1489