Journal of Human Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;">A scientific journal published by the University of Sabha twice a year. It is concerned with publishing original scientific research and studies in the field of human sciences, which have not been previously published or presented at a scientific conference. Scientific research is accepted in Arabic, English, French, and African languages. The paper will be published on the current issue. Once the evaluation process is completed, the evaluation process will be conducted in strict confidentiality by two arbitrators. The scientific papers published by the journal do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the journal. The date of the first publication in 1994 AD.</p> en-US <h4>Plagiarism policy</h4> <p>Sebha University Journal respects intellectual property and aims to protect the original work of authors applying for publication. In general, the laws of the magazine are inconsistent with scientific articles that contain stolen materials and are not bound by the standards of quality, research and innovation. Applicants for publication to the journal must adhere to ethical standards and refrain from plagiarism in any way. In the event that any plagiarism or scientific theft of an article submitted for publication is found, the journal will contact the author to provide their interpretation within two weeks of its date, after which it will be referred to the relevant committees formed for this purpose to take strict measures. about that. In general, the journal’s license allows the citation of the content published on its website and the download of all files.</p> (د. عادل محمد يوسف الناجم) (د. محمد ارحيم عمر) Tue, 22 Mar 2022 09:19:23 +0000 OJS 60 Blood types and their relationship to personality traits among students of the Faculty of Arts, University of Sebha <p>This study aims to know the blood types and their relationship with personality traits among students of the Faculty of Arts, University of Sebha, Sabha city. The sample size was (64) male and female students. The Brofeel modified personality profile scale was used for "Gordan" as a study tool. The (T) test was used as a statistical method for it. Its results were as follows: the hypothesis was fulfilled that confirms the existence of statistically significant differences between males and females in both the poise, emotional trait and the leadership trait in each of the two chapters (AB and B), It is a statistically significant function at the level of significance (0.05). However, there are no statistically significant differences between members of the total sample according to their different factions, and between the male sample members according to their different factions. From one side, and between the female sample members according to their different factions, and between males and females in both the responsibility trait and the social trait with all factions. There are difference with the trait of balance, emotion and trait leadership in each of the two classes (o, A)</p> Salima Ibrahim Abu Bakr , Abraheem Ahmed Hamzah Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Tue, 12 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Taswira Na Vikwazo Kwa Wanawake Katika Riwaya Teule Za Ben Mtobwa. <p>Makala haya yamelenga kuangalia vikwazo anavyokumbana navyo mwanamke katika kupata maendeleo kama vilivyosawiriwa na Ben R. Mtobwa. Maswala yanayosawiriwa katika riwaya teule za Ben Mtobwa ni taswira halisi ya mambo yanayoendelea katika jamii zetu za leo. Riwaya zilizochambuliwa katika Makala haya ni Salamu Kutoka Kuzimu (1984), Tutarudi na Roho Zetu (1987), Dar es Salaam Usiku (1998) na Mtambo wa Mauti (2004). Makala haya yanalenga kuchambua vikwazo vinavyowarudisha wanawake nyuma katika harakati zao za kupigania usawa. Ben R. Mtobwa katika kusawiri wanawake anaweka wazi changamoto wanazokutana nazo wanawake katika kufikia ndoto zao na kwamba mazingira ya kijamii, kisiasa, kiuchumi na hata kiutamaduni yanachangia kwa kiasi kikubwa kuwarudisha nyuma. Nadharia iliyotumika katika Makala hii ni Ufeministi wa Kiafrika. Nadharia hii hueleza matatizo na changamoto wanazopitia wanawake wa Kiafrika na namna ya kutatua changamoto hizo. Aidha taswira za wanawake katika riwaya hizi za Ben Mtobwa zinaonesha kwamba mwandishi anakinzana na misingi ya nadharia ya kifeministi mathalani Ufeministi wa Kiafrika katika kumchora mwanamke wa Kiafrika lakini anaweza akawa anawaamsha wanawake wa Kiafrika kwa namna moja au nyingine kwa kuweka wazi vikwazo na changamoto zinazowazuia katika kufikia malengo ya harakati za kifeministi. Mwisho kabisa, makala haya yanapendekeza nini kifanyike ili kuwanusuru wanawake na vikwazo hivyo vilivyochambuliwa katika riwaya teule.</p> Saad Buoazuom Mehemed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Baadhi Ya Vipengele Vya Fani Katika Riwaya Ya Adili Na Nduguze <p>Makala huu ulijikita kuchunguza matumizi ya fani katika riwaya ya Adili na Nduguze. nahau. Hivyo Makala uliazimia kuziba pengo hilo. Madhumuni Makala ya Makala huu ni kutaka bainisha matumizi ya fani katika riwaya ya Adili na Nduguze na kuchunguza ni fanio gani zilizotumika katika riwaya ya Adili na Nduguze. Mtafiti alikusanya baadhi ya fani kutoka katika riwaya ya Adili na Nduguze kama vile: tashbihi, taswira, methali, misemo, tashihisi na isitiara. Zilikusanywa na kuelezwa jinsi zilivyotumika katika riwaya ya Adili na Nduguze. Makala huu unatoa umuhimu kwa wanafunzi wa somo la fasihi kujua jinsi mwandishi alivyotumia fani jatika riwaya za makala Kiswahili. Aidha, Makala utatumika kama marejeleo makatabani.</p> Mohammed Younis Khalifa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Tue, 26 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development theories critical study Capitalism is a model <p>during this scientific paper we address the theories of development critically, and this study acquires its importance through focusing on the criticisms that have been directed to the theories of development. this topic is considered as a new one, in which the research still needs more studies should be conducted. this paper is a scientific deals with the field of development, this topic was addressed through the following :-</p> <p>first: concepts.</p> <p>second: development theories.</p> <p>third: criticism of development theories.</p> <p>in this study the researcher used the descriptive method relying on the literature that dealt with the main subject of the study, it is an attempt to clarify different points of view, with the aim of reaching a theoretical scientific analysis. the current study relies on a critical analysis of the theories of development. it is considered as descriptive analytical studies.</p> <p>western theories failed to present theories capable of understanding the reality of development, which is to change the face, but its efforts were limited to parts of an attempt to reconcile and partially restore western theories, and these theories have lost the ability to understand or change reality, as well as the desired development of ideologically oriented theories, the development of backward societies, as well as theories in general failed to provide a clear picture of how the developed societies develop.</p> Almabrouk Mohammedabu Isbayhah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Time Management As A Determinant Of Academic Ambition Among A Sample Of Student At The Faculty Of Arts In Sebha Univerity <p>The current study aims to identify the level of time management as a determinant of academic ambition among a sample of students of the Faculty of Arts at Sebha University. And the study relied on the descriptive analytical method. The sample’s society consisted of (190) male and female students that were chosen randomly. Consequently, after verifying the validity and reliability of the study tools, the study questions were answered. The results concluded that there is a statistically significant relationship between time management and the level of academic ambition among the study sample, there are no statistically significant differences at the level of ambition due to the gender variable, there are no statistically significant differences at the level of ambition due to the age variable, meaning that it is not statistically significant, while there are differences in the two dimensions (personal obstacles, the general dimension),There are no statistically significant differences in the two axes (planning, organization) attributable to the gender variable, i.e., it can be said that there are no statistically significant differences, while there are statistically significant differences in the two axes (time wasting and the general dimension), meaning that they are statistically significant, and there are no significant differences A statistic in the scale of time management attributed to the variable of age, and the study recommends the need to pay attention to the role of time and how to use it to create academic and scientific opportunities for university youth.</p> Kinz Hassan Ali Dalla , Fatimah Masoud Omar Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fezzan's economic conditions during the time of the French military administration 1943-1951 <p>This study deals with the economic conditions of the Fezzan region during the period of the French military administration 1943-1951 AD. the study also deals with the economic situation of the region when it was occupied by the Free France forces, and what are the economic procedures followed by the French military administration in the region throughout the period of its stay in the region until the end of December 1951 AD. We have to point out here that France did not leave the region after independence in late 1951 AD, but left in 1956 AD when signed the friendship and good-neighbourliness agreement with the government of Mustafa bin Halim.</p> <p>By economic conditions here we mean the financial, agricultural, and commercial aspect, as well as how taxes were collected within the region, and what they represent from the region's revenues.</p> Ali Abdussalam Abdulla Khalifa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Harzia adorable the sea the s Al-Maqamah Al-Harzia, a semiotic study <p>Maqamat art is one of the interesting anecdotal arts, as it carries a guiding message for the Arab community at the time.&nbsp; This art, which appeared at the hands of one of the greatest writers of that era - Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamdani - received great interest from the general public at that time, not only on the Arab level, but it was also transferred and translated into other languages, and through this development books were written that&nbsp; specializes in this art.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; From this point of view, I chose one of the shrines to study it, an analytical study, using the science of semiotics, and this choice fell on the Harziya shrine.&nbsp; Patience, and the calf person who has nothing of patience will be prey to adversities and calamities, and in this place the Qur’anic intertextuality, poetic intertextuality, and Arab heritage are mixed, so that the writer presents his message in an interesting literary form that enables the reader to benefit from it without getting bored, and in this study we will try to explore&nbsp; What is in this maqam of secrets, and signs refer to reality.</p> mustafa alazhari Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Mon, 13 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Tofauti Na Kufanana Ya Ada Za Harusi Baina Ya Waswahili Na Walibya <p>Makala hii ilikusudia kuchunguza tofauti na kufanana baina ya harusi ya Waswahili na Walibya. Madhumuni yalikuwa Kubainisha tofauti za ada za harusi baina ya Waswahili na Walibya. Lengo hasa ni kuona kiasi gani ya ada hizi hutofautiana na kufanana. Makala hii ilfanywa Zanzibar na Libya. Data zilipatikana kutoka kwa wanaofahamu ada hizi. Hawa walikwa ni wanawake na wanaume wazee wanaofahamu ada za harusi na taratibu zake kutoka sehemu zote mbili. Pia watafiti walishuhudia ada hizo katika harusi. Aidha, taarifa nyingine zinapatikana katika vitabu kuhusu historia na utamaduni wa Waswahili wa Zanzibar. Hata hivyo Makala itakuwa na umuhimu kwa wanafunzi wa somo la utamaduni kujua ada za harusi za Waswahili na Walibya. Vile vile wageni watokao nje ya Zanzibari wanaotaka kujua utamaduni wa jamii ya Wazanzibari au hata ya Walibya wataweza kufaidika na Makala hii</p> Salem Mahmoud Abdulhadi Massoud Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Mon, 13 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of educational Supervision in raising the efficiency of the teacher. <p>The study aimed at identifying the role of educational supervision in raising the efficiency of the teacher and developing the educational process in general, by answering the following questions:</p> <p>What is the role of the educational supervision and what is its importance, and what are its types and its educational experiences?</p> <p>The study dealt with a theoretical framework on the concept of educational supervision and its definition. The development of its stages, its importance and objectives, and what are the obstacles that face applying the educational process in a correct and effective manner in order to achieve the desired results. The study also dealt with a theoretical framework on the concept of educational supervision and the educational teacher and how they are connected to achieve the quality and effectiveness in the educational process from the point of view of some educators and scientists. </p> <p>In the study, the descriptive approach was used to find out about the educational philosophy, its most important features, its effective role, and the scientific mechanisms that can be developed until the desired goal is achieved.</p> <p>The importance of this study lies in the fact that it is an attempt to enrich scientific research in the field of educational supervision, and forming a positive progress towards developing and concerning with it.</p> <p>The study also provided a future vision and proposals to activate the role of educational supervision and educational supervisor, as it is an important tributary of the educational process, one of which is the teacher and educational supervisor.</p> Amhimid Zarouq Ammimid Saleh , Amnnah Mubark Abraham Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Globalization and its impact on Libyan society in light of international transformations <p>The topic of this study is focused on the impact of globalization upon the Libyan society in light of the international transformations that international politics witnessed at the end of the eighties and the beginning of the nineties of the last century. Several factors played a role to push the Arab world, especially Libya, to enter into the era of globalization, without adequate preparations. A collective national agenda to deal with the challenges and dangers was planned. They were made in the form of increasing pressures and multiple forms and goals, which greatly reduced the margin of independence and worked to crack the Arab alliance, However, this study came to shed light on this phenomenon and its impact on the value-building of the Libyan society. The historical and descriptive method was used to identify the historical roots, analyze and characterize this phenomenon in order to reach the most important factors affecting the society. This became clear through this study that political globalization, as a phenomenon characterized by rapid exchange and alteration as it is the product of ideological ideas. What globalization now proposing is only for the sake of exchanging and alternating the conflict from an ideological conflict to a cultural, intellectual conflict in the first place. This requires call for the need to preserve social values and customs that increase adherence to identity and social loyalty. The study concluded that there should be a need for a permanent relationship between social loyalty and political loyalty. This is done by focusing on the issue of social upbringing and political education. Such process would constitute the main support for political and social development to confront globalization and its multiple theses. The study also recommended the need to adhere to social and historical values which will reduce the rush of globalization towards the foundations of those societies and their inherited values.</p> Abdul Salam Muhammad Khalaf Allah Al-Baba'a, Saad Ibrik Al-Senussi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Selling Murabaha To Order To Buy <p>Selling is considered as one of the important financial transactions that are indispensable for a Muslim. It is one of the daily practices that a person carries out. Selling of Murabaha (making profit) to order buying is of these practices. Such types of selling have recently spread as alternative to an interest-based loan. Therefore, this research has a great importance. The researcher works to present the accurate judgments for this type of sale, and correct the misconceptions about it. The researcher also highlights the difference between it and the sale of absolute Murabaha. This research aims to acquaint traders in this sale with the rules and the conditions that verify the validity of this sale. It becomes something that a Muslim will be rewarded for, and also ensuring that rich people will not abuse poor people who are in need. Therefore, the research problem lies in finding a legitimate reason in order for such type of selling would be accepted by Shareha (Islamic law) providing that the two parties are content. In order for the researcher to be able to reach to such results, he will use the inductive and prognostic approach to reach the judgments that expand the circle of the lawful to the acceptance of Allah and His Messenger. One of the most important results of this research is that the Murabaha sale to the person ordering the purchase has two equal opinions, and are permissible for every Muslim to adopt one of them according to his condition, circumstance and degree of faith.</p> Abd-Elmajid Mahmoud Shawesh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Doctrinal Perspective on the Migration of Muslims to the Abode of Unbelief <table width="688"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="491"> <p>The phenomenon of immigration or asylum is widespread among Muslims in general and young people in particular in most Arab and Islamic countries. Migration has become a dream and aspiration for some young people. This is not surprising, because it is a requirement of God's universal laws for man to move and migrate from one place to another. That some do not know that this is a dangerous indicator for their lives, and from the above, the research &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;problem revolves around the basic question: What is the legal perspective for the immigration of countries whose systems are under the authority of the infidels? The research aims to clarify migration and its provisions, and to show its divisions. The study uses the inductive approach to reach this end. The researcher reached the most important results represented in: The migration of Muslims to the lands of infidels has several jurisprudential rulings that differ according to the person’s condition and the circumstances in which he lives, namely: the Muslim practices the rituals of Islam there, and it is forbidden for the Muslim if he is unable to show his religion in the lands of the infidels, and migration is permissible according to Sharia. If necessary, as if to protect himself from the tyranny of the ruler.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Fatma mohamed A W Ramdan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of Emperor Diocletian and Constantine the Great in the establishment of the Byzantine state 284-337 AD <p>It is known that the Roman Empire reached its peak in the second century AD. But in the third century, it faced several crises that resulted in the emergence of the Byzantine state or the Eastern Roman Empire, namely political and economic instability, the raiding of Germanic tribes and Persians, in addition to the weakness of the pagan religion, and the accompanying deterioration in social systems and cultural institutions, which weakened, threatened and exposed the empire. for destruction.</p> <p>It can be said that the Byzantine Empire was born out of the crisis of the third century, which came as a result of the accumulation of problems that surfaced in that century, which necessitated changes and reforms that were a transitional period in which the accumulation of changes led to the beginning of a new era in human history.</p> <p>In those difficult times that the Roman Empire went through, Diocletian took the throne, who saved the empire from the brink of the abyss, and was able to fix the turmoil that the empire was suffering from, but his rule along with his partner soon collapsed, but those reforms were practical solutions to critical situations that require quick solutions Temporary, and the result was good in some cases. He restored security to most parts of the empire, and the borders were preserved for another century.</p> <p>After him, Constantine was able to restore order and enjoy a special place in history due to the actions he carried out, which had a clear impact in changing the face of history, and achieving the transition from the ancient world to the world of the Middle Ages, where this emperor took two steps of great importance: the first is his official recognition He became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, and the second he transferred the capital of the empire from ancient Rome to New Rome (Constantinople) and became the new capital of the Eastern Byzantine Empire.</p> Heba Abd alrazik Awad AL-zouki Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of cash shortage in the spread of delinquency in the family An analytical descriptive study on a sample of families in the city of sebha <p>The lack of cash flow constitutes a phenomenon of concern and concern ,due to several reasons whether at the political, security or economic Levels , but its negative effects were severe and dangerous ,threatening the social , economic and political stability in Libyan society.</p> <p>The severity of the damage caused by the lack of cash has increased many satisfactory social deviation ,as it represents a deep social problem that deserves greater attention by sociology and sheds light on its various aspects , especially in light of the low standard of living from which most families in Libyan society , which led to the emergence of disadvantaged groups in difficult conditions , as poverty plays a role in difficult conditions , as poverty plays a role in deviation tion , but it can help to create a set of social&nbsp; and psychological conditions that may lead to the weakening of the moral lead to the weakening of the moral sense, which represents a bulwark&nbsp; against deviation .</p> <p>The family has an important role in settling the event or its deviation ,and it seems difficult to play its role as it should in instilling social values in the hearts of its chidren that work on building their par sonelity, in light of the material difficulties that stand in the way of improving their conditions and work to create the appropriate atmosphere for deriation.</p> <p>This , was the reason for choosing the topic of cash shortage because it is closer to reality and closer to understanding , as well as revealing the role of cash shortage within the family .</p> <p>The aim of the research is to highlight the research is to highlight the relationship between cash shortage and social deviation , the research relied on the descriptive analytical approach because it suits the nature of the study and suits the social reality .</p> <p>From the heads of families , the new locality in the city of Sabah was taken as a spatial field for the study ,while the human field was represented in a random sample consisting of (140) individual heads of individual heads of families who were chosen at random .</p> <p>The most important search results :</p> <ul> <li>There are statistically significant differences in the role of lack of cash flow on the spread of social due to the gender variable , these differences are statistically significant in the first axis ] family problems [ ,and the difference are in favor of females, as well as statistically significant in the total axes ]social deviation [ &nbsp;, in favor of females as well.</li> <li>There are differences in the respondents ,attitudes about the role of cash shortage in the spread of social deviation due to the monthly income variable ,the first axis was not statistically significant, and the second axis ] security problems [ was statistically significant , while the total axes were also not significant .</li> </ul> fatima mahammd, Almabrouk Mohammed Abu isbayhah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Taswira Ya Mapenzi Katika Nyimbo Za Watanzania <p>Makala hii inabainisha taswira ya mapenzi kama inavyojitokeza katika nyimbo teule za Mzee Yusuf Mzee. Katika kufanikisha lengo hili, taswira ya mwanamke iliyobainishwa ni pamoja na mapenzi ni upendo, mapenzi na fitina, mapenzi ni kujiamini, mapenzi na dua, mapenzi ni kutendeana wema na mapenzi na tabia nzuri. Pia makala hii hubainisha uhalisia wa taswira ya mwanamke inayojitokeza katika nyimbo teule za Mzee Yusuf Mzee kwa jamii ya leo.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Taswira, Nyimbo, Matumizi, Takriri, Mapenzi</p> Mohamed Musbah Ali Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Tue, 26 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Geographical Impact of the Provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan on the Aspects of Economic and Cultural Life ( 3-8 Hijrae / 9-14 C.E.) <p>The geography of the regions of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan has been considered a link between the Libyan territories , as their lands represented a continuous geographical area that the nature unified in spite of their political dependencies throughout history.</p> <p>What confirms this fact is the Libyan coast which linked the regions of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania , and the interior desert (Fezzan province) which linked the north to the south due to the presence of trade routes.</p> <p>This interdependence led to the enrichment of economic and cultural life in the three regions , which in turn was represented in the diversity of agricultural crops as a result of the appropriate climatic conditions , such as soil fertility , abundance of water , a temperate climate , as well as the prosperity of industry as a result of the abundance of raw materials.</p> <p>The second manifestation of this richness was trade which contributed to the distribution of agricultural and industrial products , which led to the spread of markets and commercial centers. It also led to creation of scientific activity in the three regions , represented in the enrichment of mosques , schools and corridors that gave birth many scientists who made quite a number of scientific works.</p> Salima Abou-Ojaila Elmismari, Hanan Elodjail Elghwail Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A symbol of the Libyan jihad movement The warrior Saleh Al-Kilani Ali Suleiman Al-Atyush The leader of the homes of the Maghribi tribe in Ajdabiya <p>This Almighty said : ( Among the believers are men true to what they promised Allah. Among them is he who has fulfilled his vow [to the death], and among them is he who awaits [his chance And they did not alter the terms of their commitment by any alteration) (Al-Ahzāb 23) This research aims to shed light on the history of the honourable and bright jihad movement that our ancestors wrote with their blood and their pure selves through the biography of the AlmujahidSaleh Al-Atyush, the leader of the homes of the Maghribi tribe in Ajdabiya, and we will discuss his participation and leadership of the battles in the region extending from Ajdabiya to Sirte, the most important of which was the famous battle of Al-Qardabiya in which he participated In April 1915 AD, he was at the head of the Mujahideen forces coming from east of Sirte, the Battle of BirAbilal, the Battle of Al-Kahrab and the Battle of Al-Buraiqah on June 10, 1923 AD. Jihad movement under the leadership of Idris Al-Senussi.</p> <p>In this research, we also present his rejection of all attempts at truce and reconciliation or surrender to the Italian forces, and his enemies witnessed this. General (Rodolfo Gratisani) said about him: “All attempts were made to get him to submit to the government by declaring his surrender, but in vain in front of his unrelenting mentality and his arrogance as A arrogant and arrogant leader.</p> Salem Faraj Alsuwaidi Mohamed , Rabiea Khalf Allah Abubakr Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Human Sciences Fri, 07 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000